Friday, December 17, 2004

Students of English 10 MHR1 & MHU1

Students of English 10 MHR1 and MHU1 can post their reactions to "Bowling for Columbine" and "Birthing Lupang Hinirang" by clicking on "comments" below.

Go ahead, don't be shy! It isn't a big deal!

41 comments:

seg gonzales said...

**The documentary Bowling for Columbine by Moore tells something about gun violence that reigns in America today. The documentary shows how the Americans can easily own a gun which I think is the reason why America has the largest number of deaths related to guns. In the documentary, civilians who own guns reasoned out that they only have these weapons simply because they want to protect their families and themselves againts unexpected situations, they don't want to trust their lives on the government alone but there are groups of individuals, many of them or their relatves have experienced have gun violence protested that these weapons can be really dangerous especially when it reaches the hands of the teenagers because they have uncontrolled temper just like what happened in a school there. These groups were able to close gun factories temporarily but it was not enough to solve the problems on gun violence which remains a headache in america until now. Based on what I have watched, the civil war that started there for a long time is not yet finished. Still, its people continue to kill each and even worse they kill unconsiderately. The government should do something. I think the Americans are not yet free because they are chained with fear that someone might hurt them that makes them rely on these weapons. They don't want to trust government who believes that he is the best one because he believes that he is democratic. They remain unequal because they do not respect others' right to live. I do think that they are unfortunate because they think they are the best not considering their society's dark sides. they even try to correct the imperfection of some weaker societies just like what they did to Iraq which resulted to destruction and death not reckoning to correct their imperfections first. **The documentary Birthing Lupang Hinirang tells how rich our country is. God has chosen Philippines because He provided it with abundant resources. I do think that these is the reason why many tries to colonize us and one of them is America. Others want a part of our land just like what is happening to Spratly Islands. Because of I have watched, I started to ask these questions: Why do we still remain poor with these resources?, Why can't we protect these land againts the greedy imperialists? and why cant we use our own land? It so sad that we can't benefit from what God has given us and our leaders can't do anything about this and even worse what if they don't what to do something at all. Then something noble entered my mind- we, citizens of this country should make them do something or better yet, we could be the ones to move. by Segfrey Gonzales

joanneldemingoy said...

Joanne L. Demingoy Ms Mila D. Aguilar
Eng 10 - MHU1 January 19, 2005

Assertions about Pres. Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo
1. GMA is the second woman president of the Philippine Republic.
(statement of fact)
2. GMA follows the dictates of the Catholic Church and foreign governments
like the USA. (statement of opinion)
3. Being a doctor of Economics, GMA should have known how to resolve the
current economic situations in the country. (statement of preference)
4. GMA, being the vice president, advance to the presidentiasl position when
Estrada stepped down from his office. (statement of convention)
5. GMA is small but terrible. (statement of opinion)
6. FPJ's death caused a threat on Arroyo's government.
(statement of opinion)
7. GMA lacks sincerity in everything she does. (statement of preference)
8. GMA's popularity rate went down due to the rumors of destabilization the
opposition would cause as a revenge for FPJ. (statement of fact)
9. GMA is a better president compared to Cory Aquino.
(statement of preference)
10. GMA is for the elite and educated. (statement of opinion)

Assertions about Estrada
1. Estrada is the 13th president of the Philippine Republic.
(statement of fact)
2. Estrada was more concerned with the masses compared to GMA.
(statement of preference)
3. Estrada grieved on FPJ's death. (statement of fact)
4. Had Estrada finished his studies, he would have gained more respect.
(statement of opinion)
5. EDSA 2 toppled Estrada administration. (statement of fact)
6. Estrada, before becoming a president, served as mayor of San Juan.
(statement of fact)
7. Estrada focused on maintaining the peace and order of the country more
then anything else. (statement of opinion)
8. Estrada is a gambler. (statement of fact)
9. Estrada should not be given special treatment just because he was once the
president. (statement of opinion)
10. Had there been an election again between Estrada and GMA, Estrada
would still won. (statement of preference)

segfrey gonzales 2004-34070 said...

Gloria Arroyo
*statements of fact
-Gloria is the president of the Republic of the Philippines.
-Gloria sent troupes to stop the workers of Hacienda Luisita from fighting for their rights.
-Gloria replaced Erap as the president of the Philippines.
-Gloria is a puppet of the United States.
-Gloria is facing a problem about illegal logging in our country.
*statements of opinion
-If Gloria continues to lead this country, many Filipinos will starve.
-Based on what's happening to our country today, Gloria is not a good leader.
-I think our country's situation will continue to become worse under Gloria's administration.
-Gloria should do something about the increasing poverty rate here or many Filipinos will continue to become rats.
*statenents of preference
-Gloria is more intelligent than Erap based on the level of
education attained.
-Gloria is acorrupt leader.
-Gloria's administration is a weak one.
*statement of convention
-Gloria, as a president of the Philippines lives in Malacanang
-Gloria has the exective power in the Philippine government.
Erap
*statement of fact
-Lucio Tan was chosen as the best taxpayer during Erap's government.
-Erap underwent knee surgery recently.
-Erap earned a lot from jueteng and drugs.
-Erap had a 1 billion peso kickback when PCI Equitable Bank was able to borrow money from GSIS.
-During Erap's administration the GSIS's head was his classmate.
-Lucio Tan supported Erap during elections.
-Erap has many family to support financially.
-Erap was the first actor to become a Philippine President.
*statement of opinion
-Erap lead our country for a short time.
-Erap does not have enough knowledge to lead a coutry but he has a lot of charisma so he won.
-The people made a right decision when they replaced erap but sadly, the repalcement is neither a good one.
*statement of preference
-Erap is a man of the masses.
-Erap is a generous friend.
-Erap had a better relationship with the poor than Gloria has now.
*statement of convention
-Erap has the right to run for presidency.

vic386 said...

Victor G. Dalanao Jr.
2004-60459

Erap
I. Statement of Convention
a. Erap is definitely a man.
II. Statement of Fact
a. Erap is a college drop-out.
b. Erap became the vice-president of the Philippines before he ran for presidency in 1998.
c. Erap was born in Manila.
III. Statement of Opinion
a. Since Erap never finished a degree, he failed to lead our country.
b. Jueteng will be eliminated if Erap will be jailed.
c. The morale of the opposition weakened when Erap was ousted from his position.
d. The arrest of former president Joseph Estrada was a big help in eliminating jueteng in the Philippines.
IV. Statement of Preference
a. Erap is a corrupt man.
b. Erap ought to unify the opposition.


Gloria
I. Statement of Convention
a. President Gloria Arroyo is the highest political leader in our country.
II. Statement of Fact
a. According to the SWS survey, Gloria’s approval rating plunged to minus 12
percent at the end of 2004.
d. President Gloria is the 14th president of our country.
e. Gloria is from Lubao, Pampanga.
f. Gloria is married to atty. Mike Arroyo.
III. Statement of Opinion
a. The new tax measures proposed by Gloria will just benefit the rich capitalists and aggravate the poor.
b. The economic condition of our country will continue to deteriorate since Gloria has wrong priorities.
c. Gloria can not minimize our budget deficit because she is a puppet of George Bush.
IV. Statement of Preference
a. Gloria should give more attention to education than to our foreign debt.
b. Gloria is a traditional politician.

Roger John E.Ragasa said...

Roger John Ragasa
2004-27046
-
1. Erap plundered our country’s fund.(fact)
2. Erap did not deserve to be impeached.(preference)
3. Erap is using his knee ailment as an excuse to leave the country.(opinion)
4. Erap was a great President.(preference)
5. Erap was the 13th Philippine President.(convention)
6. Erap is married to Senator Loi Ejercito.(convention)
7. Erap wanted FPJ to run for President.(opinion)
8. Erap is an Adulterous husband.(opinion)
9. Erap has a gay son.(fact)
10. Erap is a better President done Arroyo. (preference)

-
1. Gloria is our last hope against poverty.(fact)
2. Gloria is the daughter of the late President Diosdado Macapagal.(convention)
3. Gloria keeps the Macapagal in her name to harness the fame of his late father.(opinion)
4. Gloria is a great economist but a poor President. (preference)
5. Gloria acts like a puppy of President Bush. (preference)
6. Gloria is very small. (fact)
7. Gloria has a very noticeable mole in her face. (fact)
8. Gloria is a weak President. (opinion)
9. Gloria asks for additional taxes on a nation who’s barely able to eat three times a day. (fact)
10. Gloria tolerates US Imperialism. (opinion)

Roger John E.Ragasa said...

Roger John Ragasa
2004-27046
-
1. Erap plundered our country’s fund.(fact)
2. Erap did not deserve to be impeached.(preference)
3. Erap is using his knee ailment as an excuse to leave the country.(opinion)
4. Erap was a great President.(preference)
5. Erap was the 13th Philippine President.(convention)
6. Erap is married to Senator Loi Ejercito.(convention)
7. Erap wanted FPJ to run for President.(opinion)
8. Erap is an Adulterous husband.(opinion)
9. Erap has a gay son.(fact)
10. Erap is a better President done Arroyo. (preference)

-
1. Gloria is our last hope against poverty.(fact)
2. Gloria is the daughter of the late President Diosdado Macapagal.(convention)
3. Gloria keeps the Macapagal in her name to harness the fame of his late father.(opinion)
4. Gloria is a great economist but a poor President. (preference)
5. Gloria acts like a puppy of President Bush. (preference)
6. Gloria is very small. (fact)
7. Gloria has a very noticeable mole in her face. (fact)
8. Gloria is a weak President. (opinion)
9. Gloria asks for additional taxes on a nation who’s barely able to eat three times a day. (fact)
10. Gloria tolerates US Imperialism. (opinion)

John Ceasar Villarin said...

Sentences About Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo
1. Glora Macapagal-Arroyo was re-elected as president of the Philippines last May 2004. (fact)
2. GMA should make her move on the dollar crisis in our country. (preference)
3. GMA cheated in the last election because she wanted to be re-elected. (opinion)
4. President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo is a mysterious woman. (preference)
5. The rank of President Arroyo is higher than any other officials in the country. (convention)
6. The Arroyo government will be destabilized this year. (opinion)
7. During GMA's government, the prices of gasoline and basic commodities increased. (fact)
8. GMA is the second woman president of the Philippines. (fact)
9. GMA's ratings will drop this coming March. (opinion)
10. President Arroyo enjoys her life as a president. (opinion)

Sentences About Erap
1. Erap went to Hong Kong for his knee surgery. (fact)
2. Erap should follow the rules of the Sandiganbayan to avoid controversy. (preference)
3. A group thought that the threat of assasination of Erap came from a third party. (opinion)
4. Erap and FPJ were bestfriends. (fact)
5. Erap is still facing the plunder case. (fact)
6. Erap is still the People's President. (opinion)
7. Joseph Estrada will run for presidency next election. (opinion)
8. Erap is a marvelous man. (preference)
9. Joseph EStrada is the thirteenth president of the Philippines. (fact)
10. At the end of the year, Erap will undergo some medical operations. (opinion)

Anonymous said...

Fernandez, Patrick L. 2003-54798
Eng10 MHU1
January 19, 2005

Arroyo
1.If this does not happens, he warned, Ms Macapagal would be held captive to pro- Estrada senators. Statement of opinion2.Ms. Macapagal displayed a touch of irritation when asked about the decision to ban “Live Show,” a filmic social commentary depicting the poverty that drives people to resort to performing sex on stage for a living. Statement of opinion3.She [Arroyo] reiterated her administration’s high moral standards to differentiate it from that of the previous administration. Statement of fact4.For the first time, President Macapagal Arroyo admitted that the dream of the People Power Coalition of a “13-0” sweep in the May senatorial race may not come true. Statement of fact5.In Pagadian City, President Macapagal-Arroyo wondered aloud why Lacson had denied involvement in the Dacer case. Statement of fact6.President Macapagal-Arroyo distanced herself from local politicians amid the heightening of tension between rival camps backing the People Power Coalition (PPC) Statement of fact7.Ms. Macapagal’s statement emboldened local government officials’ here belonging to the President’s Party, the Lakas-NUCD. Statement of preference8.According to Ms. Macapagal, we Kapampangans must repay the Senate and the congressmen – prosecutors who tried Joseph Estrada for pushing Gloria over the top. Statement of preference9.Ms. Macapagal’s father, the late, President Diosdado Macapagal, was from Lubao and Floridablanca. Statement of fact10.Ms. Macapagal speaks Kapampangan. Statement of factEstrada
1.Vice President Joseph Estrada yesterday disclosed that he had received fresh intelligence reports that some groups were out to kill him to stop his imminent election as the countries next president. Statement of fact2.Estrada said the information was “raw” but he was taking then seriously just the same. Statement of preference3.But while Estrada’s security men have yet to see any indication that the band posed a threat, LAMMP officials would rather not take any chances. Statement of preference4.When Estrada and other LAMMP candidates blazed the trail in Mindanao from March 22 to March 29, the same persons were seen individually but repeatedly in the rallies held in Dipolog, Bukidnon and Cagayan de Oro. Statement of fact5.An article on the Philippine presidential campaign in the April 6 issue of Time magazine confirms the conventional wisdom gelling today: that the presidential election will be fought over by only two candidates – Vice president Joseph Estrada of LAMMP and Lakas candidate Speaker Jose de Venecia. Statement of opinion6.Vice president Joseph Estrada in being more careful nowadays about his food and drinks. Statement of preference7.Estrada, who is known to love food, said it’s not because he is on a weight-loss program nor to doctor’s advice. Statement of fact8.The Estrada camp claimed there was such plot as oplan Jupiter whose intent is to finish him off before the May 11 polls. Statement of preference9.The other assumption – the program of the next administration to send Mr. Ramos and cohorts to jail with prosecution over corruption—reveals the vindictive mindset of the Estrada camp. Statement of opinion10.If an Estrada administration launches a vindictive vendetta targeting alleged corruption in the Ramos administration, the President can very well defend himself in the courts of justice. Statement of preferenceReferences:
1.Burgos, Nestor, Gloria refuses to drip fingers into local polls, Philippine Daily Inquirer, March 30, 2001, p. A14
2.Cañares, Cathy, Erap says his assassin’s target, Philippine Daily Inquirer, April 4, 1998, p.2
3.Coronel, Leandro, V., Is GMA Kapampangan?, Philippine Daily Inquirer, March 31, 2001, p. A9
4.Cuerto, Donna S., Gloria gives up dream of 13-0, Philippine Daily Inquirer, March 31, 2001, p. A1
5.Cuerto, Donna S., Jerome Aring, GMA: It’s not Sin but his spokesperson, Philippine Daily Inquirer, March 31, 2001, p. A19
6.Cuerto, Donna S., Lacson urges PAOCTF men to cooperate in the NBI probe, Philippine Daily Inquirer, March 31, 2001, p. A1
7.Doronita, Amanda, The martial law syndrome, Philippine Daily Inquirer, April 6, 1998, p.9
8.Olivares-Cunanan, Belinda, Time story lists Erap, Joe de V as final contenders, Philippine Daily Inquirer, April 4, 1998, p.7
9.Pablo, Carlita, Erap warned of death by cyanide poisoning, Philippine Daily Inquirer, April 6, 1998, p.3
10.Yamsuan, Cathy C., DOJ to call Estrada, FVR on Dacer killing, Philippine Daily Inquirer, March 31, 2001, p. A20

Anonymous said...

Llaneta, Dan Christian O.
2003-15003

(these definitions were taken from googlism.com, so don't put all the blame on me completely if some of them are a bit "off" ^^;)

Mrs. Gloria Arroyo aka GMA

1. GMA is a dictator in the making. (opinion)
2. GMA is a wimp. (preference)
3. GMA is not afraid of Osama Bin Laden. (opinion)
4. GMA is an economist. (fact)
5. GMA is one that is run and dominated by trapos. (opinion)
6. GMA is an undisputed chameleon. (preference)
7. GMA is more than just. (preference)
8. GMA is not going to stay long in the Malacañang Palace. (opinion)
9. GMA is our fellow servant in Jesus Christ. (fact?)
10. GMA is the daughter of the former president Diosdado Macapagal. (fact)


Mr. Joseph Estrada aka Erap

1. Erap is starting to get overweight. (fact)
2. Erap is not the most sophisticated of Asian leaders in terms of knowledge of business and economics. (fact)
3. Erap is truly a bad joke played upon the entire Philippines. (opinion)
4. Erap is no longer a political threat. (opinion)
5. Erap is the hope of the masses. (preference)
6. Erap is the ultimate family man. (preference)
7. Erap is given a thorough physical examination. (fact)
8. Erap is clueless about piloting the ship of the state. (opinion)
9. Erap is monitoring Globe and Smart to find out who is making fun of him. (fact)
10. Erap is the messiah of the poor. (preference.)

Anonymous said...

Pamintuan, Marjorie D.2004-32928 Ms. Mila D. Aguilar
Eng 10 MHR1 19 January 2005


Statements About Erap

He is a corrupt politician
 Statement of opinion and preference

He committed plunder and betrayed public trust.
 Statement of fact

According to Chavit Singson, he is the lord of all jueteng lords.
 Statement of fact

The former president of the Republic of the Philippines.
 Statement of fact

He was a movie star.
 Statement of fact

A close friend of the late FPJ.
 Statement of fact.

Nag-iinarte siya.
 Statement of preference

He will lead the opposition and unite the nation against the corrupt government.
 Statement of preference

He had his knee operation in Hong Kong.
 Statement of fact

A friend and pare of the masa.
 Statement of preference and opinion

Statements About Gloria

The second female president of the Republic of the Philippines.
 Statement of fact

Brighter and smarter as compared to Erap.
 Statement of preference

A running dog of US imperialists.
 Statement of opinion and prference

Conrado de Quiros wrote she is not part of the struggle of the Filipinos in ousting Erap, only a beneficiary of their struggle.
 Statement of fact

A fascist.
 Statement of preference

Her job ratings are going down according to the SWS.
 Statement of fact

The number of human rights violations increased during her term as president.
 Statement of opinion

Largely to blame for the Hacienda Luisita Massacre.
 Statement of opinion

A better leader than Erap.
 Statement of preference

She is an economist so she knows what she’s doing.
 Statement of opinion

Anonymous said...

don't put all the blame on me completely

(teka, wrong grammar ako! redundant! sorry. hehe.)

- Dan Llaneta
2003-15003

Anonymous said...

From: Richard Allan D.Jaime 04-11522
MHR1-English 10

Statements about GMA

I. Fact
- GMA graduated with a Ph. D. in Economics.
- FPJ supporters say that GMA should not be the declared President.
- She pursues a 10-point program for the country that seems to be unachievable.

II. Convention
- The opposition is against GMA.
- She has the greatest responsibility to the country.
- She is an expert when it comes to Economics.

III. Opinion
- GMA can be a better leader if no one's against her.
- Not many of us support GMA since she only got 40% of the people's vote.

IV. Preference
- GMA is the worst President.
- She can't really solve the problems here because she grew up somewhere else.
- No country can work well if GMA's the president.

Statements about ERAP

I. Fact
- Erap didn't graduate in any college or university.
- He was an actor turned president.
- Many of the poor people support him much.

II. Convention
- He was good in dealing with the masses.

III. Opinion
- He somehow hated GMA.
- He couldn't bear seeing people rising up against his administration so he stepped down to his position as the President of the Philippines.

IV. Preference
- He wasn't any better than any president.
- His leadership has not really helped the development of our country.

amos :=> said...

Amos Kaiser K. Khan [2004-02073]
Eng 10 - MHR1
Assignment on the Kinds of Statements

On former president Erap:
[convention] The crime of plunder, which is the primary case against Erap, is defined as "any public officer who, by himself or in connivance with other persons, amasses, accumulates or acquires ill-gotten wealth through a combination or series of overt criminal acts hereof in the aggregate amount or total value of at least Fifty million pesos" (Republic Act No. 7080).

[fact] After being discharged from the hospital, Erap stayed at the Parkview Hotel in Hongkong before going back to the Philippines.

[fact] Erap is already 67 years old.

[fact] Erap's Hongkong surgery was his first trip outside the country after he was placed under house arrest.

[fact] The Jose Velarde bank account is already zero-balance.

[opinion] Erap's plan to unite the opposition will new prosper.

[opinion] The court is already softening on the Estrada case.

[preference] The Sandiganbayan shouldn't have allowed Erap to have his knee surgery in Hongkong.

[preference] The favors being given by the court to Erap is already a sign that there's no equality and fairness in the eyes of Philippine justice.

-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

On President Gloria:
[convention]Being the president of the republic, President Arroyo is also the commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces of the Philippines.

[fact] President Gloria is the one being impersonated by the comedienne Ate Glow.

[fact] President Gloria Arroyo spent most of her time during the holidays at their vacation house in Baguio.

[fact] President Arroyo flew to Indonesia last January 5, 2005 to attend the ASEAN Tsunami Summit.

[opinion] President Gloria Arroyo has no or little political will.

[opinion] President Gloria Arroyo tries to win the masses by portraying that she cares about Erap.

[preference] President Gloria Arroyo should have used her expertise in the field of Economics to boost our country's economy.

[preference] The deployment of thousands of policemen during the FPJ burial is a sign of fear by the administration.

[preference] President Arroyo should have pushed for a more effective means of tax collection rather than tax increases.

Anonymous said...

Rodel Divina Jan 19, 2005
2003-21918 MHU1 Ms. Mila Aguilar

JOSEPH ESTRADA:

1. Despite being ousted from the presidency of the Philippines more than two years ago, Joseph Estrada continues to cast a shadow over the rule of his successor Gloria Arroyo. PREFERENCE

2. Mr Estrada is currently detained in a military hospital outside Manila, during his trial on charges of bribery and corruption. FACT


3. Mr Estrada himself was a man of considerable personal wealth. PREFERENCE

4. There are also allegations that Mr. Estrada has bought plush houses for his various mistresses using illegally acquired money. OPINION

5. "He is not just a gambling lord, he is a gambling god. He is the most corrupt person I have ever met." PREFERENCE

6. Prosecutors allege that the Ejercito account in the now defunct Urban Bank was the source of seven checks worth 182 million pesos that went into the infamous "Jose Velarde" account. FACT

7. President Estrada may be able to convince President Clinton and Cohen to release the full amount of $5 million ahead of schedule. OPINION

8. He did not, however, let success stop him from contributing in other domains for the growth of the industry that made him famous. OPINION

9. President Joseph E. Estrada betrayed public trust and violated his own oath of office when he unduly intervened in the Securities and Exchange Commission on behalf of a presidential crony. FACT

10. The President and his family had shares of P121.5 million with a paid-up capital of P58 million when the companies were formed. FACT


GLORIA MACAPAGAL ARROYO:

1. After less than two years in the job, President Gloria Arroyo appears to have lost heart. OPINION

2. Ms. Macapagal-Arroyo wishes to generate intense competition among her rivals within and outside the ruling coalition and could thus fabricate a public clamor for her presidential candidacy. PREFERENCE

3. However her sometimes cold and businesslike manner made it difficult for her to win the support of the poor who make up most of the population. OPINION

4. But Mrs Arroyo's greatest handicap has been her inability to produce results in the areas that matter most to Filipinos -- the economy and crime. OPINION

5. The new president of the Philippines, Gloria Arroyo, has a considerable burden weighing on her shoulders. CONVENTION

6. The country is suffering from the US economic slowdown and faces an uphill struggle to win back investor confidence. OPINION

7. As a trained economist, Ms Arroyo is welcomed by many, as a cheerleader for economic reform. PREFERENCE

8. In Manila, President Gloria Macapagal Aroyo faces similar criticism from her opposition, keen to attack the open door policy for American forces in the fight against the radical Abu Sayaf guerrilla movement. FACT

9. ARROYO became president on January 20, 2001 after former President Joseph Ejercito ESTRADA was removed from office on corruption charges. FACT



10. Arroyo said one way for Estrada to be able to win bail is to mobilize his allies and sympathizers in Congress, of which he has many, to lobby for the enactment of bills abolishing the death penalty. FACT

Anonymous said...

edlyn llanes

Assertions about Pres. GMA
1. Pres. GMA is an economist. - Statement of Fact
2. GMA is competent, intelligent and well-intention.
- Statement of Preference
3. Gloria Arroyo is undoubtedly a woman.
- Statement of convention
4. Pres. GMA used the government's fund for her campaign last election. - Statement of Opinion
5. She does not deserve to win the presidency last 2004 election. - Statement of Preference


Assertions about Erap

1. Erap was the 13th president of the Philippines.
- Statement of Fact
2. He is a failure for the masses.
- Statement of Opinion
3. President Estrada is the worst president we ever have. - Statement of Preference
4. He cheated the Filipino people.
- Statement of opinion
5. He is now suffering from serious illnesses.
- Statement of Fact.

Anonymous said...

Ana Corazon C. Reduta
2003-63795
MHU1

Assertions on PGMA:
1. In her weekly radio address, GMA said "residual threats from last weekend's uprising remain but the security situation in the country is under control." - statement of fact
2. One of the questions President Macapagal-Arroyo wants the Feliciano Commission to answer is whether our young officers are miseducated. - statement of fact
3. Only Ms. Macapagal and First Gentleman Jose Miguel Arroyo have a lot of money today. - statement of opinion
4. GMA is panicking. - statement of opinion
5. Macapagal's administration is better than Estrada's. - statements opinion/preference
6. Ms. Macapagal is aware that she is close to losing her hold on power. - statement of opinion
7. GMA should not ignore the meetings of the generals because they continue to exert strong influence over active military and police officers. - statement of preference
8. Macapagal has been wooing the masa for several years now with little success. - statement of convention
9. Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo is the daughter of the former President Diosdado Macapagal. - statement of fact
10. Gloria is more intelligent than Estrada. - statement of preference

Assertions on Erap:
1. Estrada said he doubts if anyone has that much money (billions of pesos)like PGMA. statement of fact
2. It was the meeting of the generals that precipitated Estrada's ouster. - statement of fact
3. Estrada had frenziedly handed out land titles and goodies to the urban poor. - statement of opinion
4. The poor know fully well that GMA only stole power from Estrada. - statements of preference/opinion
5. If Estrada is to be believed, history does seem to repeat itself. - statement of opinion
6. Estrada has many mistresses. - statement of fact
7. I (Estrada) am a lot more in favor of FPJ to becoming a president. - statement of preference
8. Joseph Ejercito Estrada is also known as Erap. - statement of convention
9. Erap is a good actor during his time in the movie industry. - statement of convention
10. Erap hardly speaks in English. - statement of opinion

pat said...

1. Erap was impeached after having been proven guilty of corruption. FACT
2. He had just arrived from his knee therapy in Hongkong. FACT
3. He now stays in Tanay, Rizal for recuperation. FACT
4. Erap was known to be pro-poor. CONVENTION
5. Erap shouldn't have spent the people's money for his personal interests. OPINION
6. HE could've been a good president of only he weren't prodded on by his mates. PREFERENCE
7. He would look better if he cut his hair shorter. PREFERENCE
8. He gambles. FACT
9. He has/had many mistresses. FACT
10. Erap should've stayed in showbiz and didn't dabble in politics. OPINION

1. Gloria Macapagal Arroyo included the production of jobs in her platform (remember? hehe..). FACT
2. She is now on her second term after replacing deposed president Erap. CONVENTION
3. She is the daughter of Diosdado Macapagal. CONVENTION
4. Her leadership is slowly taking the country down in shambles. OPINION
5. BUT she looks cute, with her height... OPINION
6. Our family didn't support GMA last MAy. PREFERENCE
7. She should've started showing real action and service long ago. PREFERENCE
8. She should just resign. PREFERENCE
9. Gloria is being impersonated constantly on TV. FACT
10. Gloria appears in a "commercial" about her patubig. FACT

Jun King P. Minon said...

1. President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo went for an ASEAN summit in Jakarta, Indonesia.(fact)
2. She is a good economist.(opinion)
3. She led the national prayer for the victims of the Tsunami in Asia at the Malacanan Heroes Hall.(fact)
4. Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo is the 14th president of the Philippines.(fact)
5. She is better than Mr. Estrada.(preference)
6. Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo and her administration are confident that the country's budget deficit could be satisfied by increasing the Value-Added Tax.(opinion)
7. She is a good president.(preference)
8. Arroyo administration is paranoid.(opinion)
9. President Gloria Arroyo had brought pressure on the officials and employees of the BIR and BoC to improve revenue collection this year.(fact)
10. She must resign now and give up her position to someone else.(preference)

1. Mr. Joseph Estrada had undergone knee operation in Hong Kong.(fact)
2. He was a high-school drop-out.(fact)
3. He was one of the best action stars in his time.(opinion)
4. Mr. Estrada is a brave man.(preference)
5. If he was not impeached, he would be a good leader.(opinion)
6. He should take care of his health, now that he had went into an operation.(preference)
7. Mr. Estrada will be subjected to therapy in his resthouse in Tanay, Rizal.(fact)
8. He has a plunder case together with his son, Jinggoy.(fact)
9. He has special treatment because he was once a president.(fact)
10. Mr. Estrada is not guilty with all the cases that was filed against him.(opinion)

Anonymous said...

rogers perdiguerra
Assertions about Pres. Arroyo

1. Based from the predictions of some psychic, GMA will not finish her second term as president. (statement of fact)

2. GMA handles our economic problem wisely. (statement of preference)

3. GMA should not be a TOYM awardee. (statement of opinion)

4. Last election, the campaign of GMA is well supported by showbiz personalities. (statement of fact)

5.GMA is a former DSWD secretary. (statement of fact)

6.GMA leads a thanksgiving mass for the celebration of the anniversary of EDSA II. (statement of fact)

7.Being the president of this country, GMA has the power over all the people of the Philippines. (statement of convention)

8.GMA earned her doctoral degree in economics in the University of the Philippines. (statement of fact?)

9.GMA is happy on the death of FPJ. (statement of opinion)]

10. GMA is the grandmother of Mikaela. (statement of fact)

assertion about Erap.

1. Erap is the father of Jinggoy and JV.(statement of fact)

2. Erap should be treated equally like the other criminals. (statement of opinion)

3. Erap, during the Edsa II revolution, escaped from the Malacanang palace using the Pasig river. (statement of fact)

4. Erap knows all the informations about the diffferent kinds of gambling. (statement of convention)

5. Erap was known to be the heroof poor Filipinos.(statement of fact)

6. Erap is most corrupt president in the history of the Philippines.(statement of preference)

7. Erap is under a house arrest meaning he will be guarded in his house or quarter instead of in prison. (statement of convention)

8. Erap should not be detained in his resthouse at Tanay, Rizal. (statement of opinion)

9. Erap is a humble man. (statement of preference)

10. If everyone will see the other side of EStrada, they will conclude that he is a good husband and leader of this country. (statement of opinion)

Anonymous said...

Allen Manaid
MHU1

ERAP

1. Erap is a Filipino. (convention)
2. Erap was put on trial due to plundering charges made against him. (fact)
3. The events of the EDSA II revolution ultimately led to the expulsion of Erap from the presidency. (fact)
4. Erap was one of the greatest pinoy action movie stars of all time. (opinion)
5. Erap should've had his knee operation here in the Philippines instead. (preference)
6. Erap should be put in an ordinary prison just like any other convict. (preference)
7. Despite having the lowest campaign expenditures among the candidates, Erap won the election. (fact)
8. Erap shouldn't have been impeached; he wasn't really guilty of anything. (preference)
9. Erap is an ex-president of the Philippines. (convention)
10. Erap is as handsome as he was years ago. (opinion)

GMA

1. GMA is currently the president of the Philippines. (convention)
2. GMA has an excellent academic background, having a phD in Economics and a Master's degree in Business Ad. as some of her accomplishments. (fact)
3. GMA won the recent election. (convention)
4. GMA cheated so she could win and become president. (opinion)
5. Recent surveys show that GMA's popularity rating gradually declined over the past few years of her term. (fact)
6. GMA should focus more on education instead of paying the national debt. (preference)
7. GMA will never finish her ten-point agenda on time. (opinion)
8. GMA shouldn't raise taxes because of the already high prices of basic commodities. (preference)
9. GMA performs poorly despite her educational background. (opinion)
10. GMA is still alive. (convention)

Anonymous said...

Karen Wendy Brett

Joseph Ejercito-Estrada
1) Joseph Estrada was elected president president of the Philippines during the 2000 elections. (fact)
2) Estrada is the 13th president of the Philippines. (fact)
3) Estrada was a famous actor before he was involved in politics.(fact)
4) He governed the Philippines as dictated by his advisers. (opinion)
5) During his governance, the issue of gambling was at its peak. (opinion)
6) Despite what he was doing, he still had a full-support from the masses. (opinion)
7) Though Erap is not in position, he still has great influence on the opposition's decision-making. (opinion)
8) Estrada's career would still be a stable one if he continued and concentrated on his acting profession. (preference)
9) Estrada should have been careful in choosing his friends especially when it has something to do with the people's money. (preference)
10) Today, Estrada should be keeping a low-profile and avoid influencing the masses after his scandalous performance as a president. (preference)

Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo
1) GMA is the second woman president of the Philippines. (fact)
2) She is also the second Macapagal to run the same office. (fact)
3) Our economy's state remains to be at its lowest ebb since her administration gives more focus to external and foreign affairs. (opinion)
4) National issues which prove to be pressing problems are more or less ignored by the present administration. (opinion)
5) Arroyo wasn't able to build a strong republic. (opinion)
6) Arroyo is a puppet of the United States of America. (opinion)
7) While she is strengthening her alliance with the USA, she's losing the trust of the Filipino people. (opinion)
8) The president should not let USA influence and dictate our government policies and decision-making. (preference)
9) Our economy would be better off if the present administration should focus more on the local issues rather than foreign ones. (preference)
10) Restoring the people's trust towards the government should be the main priority of the administration. (preference)

Anonymous said...

Villas, Jan Michael R. (2003-28575)
ARROYO
Statements of Convention:
Gloria Macapagal Arroyo is the current chief executive of the republic of the Philippines.
She is the fourteenth president of the Philippines.

Statements of Facts:
Gloria Macapagal Arroyo got her PhD in economics in UP School of Economics, Diliman.
Gloria was born on April 5, 1947 in San Juan, Metro Manila.

Statements of Opinion:
Gloria Macapagal Arroyo directing the Department of Education to return English as the primary medium of education shows her high regards to the Americans.
GMA will not accomplish the ten point agenda she delivered in her SONA last year.

Statements of Preference:
Gloria Macapagal Arroyo has indeed proven to the world that height and gender doesn’t matter in leading a country.
Still, Gloria Macapagal Arroyo’s accomplishments are way behind that of Cory’s.

ESTRADA
Statements of Convention
Joseph Estrada is the thirteenth president of the Philippines.
Joseph Estrada is one of the best actors of the Philippine movie industry.

Statements of Facts:
People Power II or much known as EDSA II removed Estrada from the seat of presidency.
The late Fernando Poe Jr. is a close friend of Erap.

Statements of Opinion:
Despite the crime he had committed to the Filipino people, he was still granted a comfortable place to live on.
Estrada’s fall from power is also caused of having ineffective advisers.

Statements of Preference:
Joseph Estrada is the hero of the masses.
I think Gloria is better than Erap in foolishness.

Anonymous said...

Aries R. Paningbatan
2004-27563

Erap
1) Erap was an actor. (convention)
2) Erap grew 2 inches taller when he got operated. (fact)
3) He was an useless president. (preference)
4) He just only won the presidential election because he was an actor. (opinion)
5) He was the 13th president of the Philippines. (convetion)
6) He deserved to be impeached and pay for the sins he made. (opinion)
7) Erap can not run for president again. (fact)
8) Erap wanted to help the country. (opinion)
9) Erap stole the government's money. (opinion)
10) Erap was using his ailment as a delaying tactics so that he can not be persecuted. (opinion)

----------------------

Gloria
1) She was the second lady president of the Philippines. (convention)
2) She was the last hope of our country. (opinion)
3) She will make our economy grow. (opinion)
4) She is a fantastic president. (preference)
5) She is controlled by the military forces that is why she keeps on raising there benefits. (opinion)
6) She tolerates the imperialism that the united States of America is doing to the philippines. (opinion)
7) She is a very short person. (fact)
8) She has a big mole in her face. (fact)
9) She is the second president in her family tree. (fact)
10) She can not stop corruption by the end of her term. (opinion)

Anonymous said...

Aries R. Paningbatan
2004-27563

Erap
1) Erap was an actor. (convention)
2) Erap grew 2 inches taller when he got operated. (fact)
3) He was an useless president. (preference)
4) He just only won the presidential election because he was an actor. (opinion)
5) He was the 13th president of the Philippines. (convetion)
6) He deserved to be impeached and pay for the sins he made. (opinion)
7) Erap can not run for president again. (fact)
8) Erap wanted to help the country. (opinion)
9) Erap stole the government's money. (opinion)
10) Erap was using his ailment as a delaying tactics so that he can not be persecuted. (opinion)

----------------------

Gloria
1) She was the second lady president of the Philippines. (convention)
2) She was the last hope of our country. (opinion)
3) She will make our economy grow. (opinion)
4) She is a fantastic president. (preference)
5) She is controlled by the military forces that is why she keeps on raising there benefits. (opinion)
6) She tolerates the imperialism that the united States of America is doing to the philippines. (opinion)
7) She is a very short person. (fact)
8) She has a big mole in her face. (fact)
9) She is the second president in her family tree. (fact)
10) She can not stop corruption by the end of her term. (opinion)

Anonymous said...

Jerome de las Alas
2003-09697
Ms. Mila Aguilar
Assignment

(C)-convention
(F)-fact
(P)-preference
(O)-opinion

Assertive Sentences Regarding President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo
1. The economic growth of the Philippines has increased ever since PGMA was elected president. (f)
2. PGMA was the former vice president of the deposed Joseph Estrada. (c)
3. GMA's leadership is exceptional. (p)
4. Filipinos blame PGMA for the fiscal crisis that the Philippines is facing. (o)
5. GMA is the 14th president of the republic. (c)
6. GMA is the second woman president of the Philippines. (f)
7. President Gloria Arroyo attended Georgetown University in Washington D.C. (f)
8. PGMA became a professor at the University of the Philippines School of Economics. (f)
9. GMA is a small woman. (o)
10. The current term of GMA should last for another five years. (c)

Assertive Sentences Regarding Former President Joseph Estrada
1. The masses loved Erap. (p)
2. Former President Estrada was deposed in the year 2001. (f)
3. Joseph Estrada dropped out of college. (f)
4. Estrada's popularity as an actor contributed to his convincing win in the presidential elections. (f)
5. Joseph Estrada's term was unproductive. (p)
6. Because of the impeachment proceedings, Ex-President Joseph Estrada lost his position. (o)
7. Impeachment, a law proceeding to cast out an official of public office, was applied to Erap. (c)
8. Former President Estrada was born in Manila. (f)
9. Erap's knee surgery was carried out in Hong Kong. (f)
10. Film actors are not capable of ruling an entire country. (o)

celestina rhona quizon said...

Statements about Pres. Gloria Arroyo

1. Pres. Arroyo is the 14th president of our republic. (fact)
2. Pres. Arroyo is an economist. (fact)
3. Pres. Arroyo used her family's reputation to lead our country. (opinion)
4. Pres. Arroyo created the 11-member commission on April 30 through Executive Order 314.
(fact)
5. According to Bayan Muna party-list Rep. Teodoro Casino, Pres. Arroyo's administration
is as corrupt as Joseph Estrada. (opinion)
6. GMA should yield her power to allocate the agencies' funds to Congress. (obligation)
7. Pres. Arroyo authorized the Presidential Commission on Values Formation to file graft
charges against corrupt government personnel.(fact)
8. GMA imposed the gun ban in January 2003 and ordered PNP Chief Dir. Gen. Hermogenes
Ebdane Jr. to cancel existing PTCFORS and suspend the issuance of these permits.
(fact)
9. According to surveys, Pres. Arroyo's approval ratings had plummeted to a record level
and amid warnings that she faced turbulent days ahead. (fact)
10. Pres. Arroyo is a good leader but she is lack of self-reliance. (opinion)

Statements about Mr. Joseph Estrada

1. Mr. Estrada is an actor-politician. (fact)
2. Mr. Estrada is the former president who have a big heart to the masses. (opinion)
3. Joseph Estrada was impeached and ousted in the second Edsa people power revolution
for corruption and incompetence. (fact)
4. Joseph Estrada, who once initiated an advertising boycott of the newspaper when he was
president, believed his suffering from an unfair media would eventually have its end.
(opinion)
5. Mr. Estrada had his surgery for an arthritic knee in HongKong last December 31. (fact)
6. According to his doctor, Mr. Estrada should be allowed to stay close to a major
medical center for six to eight weeks rather than two weeks to prevent complications.
(preference)
7. The behavior of Estrada in HongKong has been similar to that of a spoiled kid let
loose in a candy shop. (opinion)
8. Joseph Estrada is a corrupt official during his term. (fact)
9. Joseph Estrada became our president for three years. (fact)
10. Joseph Estrada is a brave man. (preference)

celestina rhona quizon said...

Statements about Pres. Gloria Arroyo

1. Pres. Arroyo is the 14th president of our republic. (fact)
2. Pres. Arroyo is an economist. (fact)
3. Pres. Arroyo used her family's reputation to lead our country. (opinion)
4. Pres. Arroyo created the 11-member commission on April 30 through Executive Order 314.
(fact)
5. According to Bayan Muna party-list Rep. Teodoro Casino, Pres. Arroyo's administration
is as corrupt as Joseph Estrada. (opinion)
6. GMA should yield her power to allocate the agencies' funds to Congress. (obligation)
7. Pres. Arroyo authorized the Presidential Commission on Values Formation to file graft
charges against corrupt government personnel.(fact)
8. GMA imposed the gun ban in January 2003 and ordered PNP Chief Dir. Gen. Hermogenes
Ebdane Jr. to cancel existing PTCFORS and suspend the issuance of these permits.
(fact)
9. According to surveys, Pres. Arroyo's approval ratings had plummeted to a record level
and amid warnings that she faced turbulent days ahead. (fact)
10. Pres. Arroyo is a good leader but she is lack of self-reliance. (opinion)

Statements about Mr. Joseph Estrada

1. Mr. Estrada is an actor-politician. (fact)
2. Mr. Estrada is the former president who have a big heart to the masses. (opinion)
3. Joseph Estrada was impeached and ousted in the second Edsa people power revolution
for corruption and incompetence. (fact)
4. Joseph Estrada, who once initiated an advertising boycott of the newspaper when he was
president, believed his suffering from an unfair media would eventually have its end.
(opinion)
5. Mr. Estrada had his surgery for an arthritic knee in HongKong last December 31. (fact)
6. According to his doctor, Mr. Estrada should be allowed to stay close to a major
medical center for six to eight weeks rather than two weeks to prevent complications.
(preference)
7. The behavior of Estrada in HongKong has been similar to that of a spoiled kid let
loose in a candy shop. (opinion)
8. Joseph Estrada is a corrupt official during his term. (fact)
9. Joseph Estrada became our president for three years. (fact)
10. Joseph Estrada is a brave man. (preference)

Michiko said...

Michelle T. Bernardo 03-13061 Eng10

(Nothing personal. I just asked people around and gladly, they gave me these.)

What do people say about:

*Erap
1. Erap is a good man for helping the people in San Juan. (preference)
2. For having many mistresses, you can say that he's immoral. (convention)
3. Erap is acting like a Ninoy for fearing that something bad will happen to him after he went down in the plane. (Opinion)
4. Erap was easy to fool because he quickly gave his trust. (opinion)
5. Erap relied more on to his advisers than to his own decision. (opinion)
6. Erap had no education but he tried to perform his part as president. (opinion)
7. Starting from rags to riches, Erap got the mass' sympathy. (opinion)
8. Because Erap has no brain, he didn't know that many of his men are planning to throw him out of his position. (opinion)
9. Erap still thinks that because he became president, he must be given special treatment even in jail.(opinion)
10. San Juan, led by the Ejercitos, is a progressive municipal. (opinion)

*Gloria
1. Gloria is a better president than Erap. (preference)
2. She took up MS Econ here in UP, therefore, as our president, she'll focus more on our economy. (opinion)
3. She's an 'American Puppet'.(opinion)
4. Gloria is small but terrible. (opinion)
5. She's a great pretender in her TV commercials. (opinion)
6. She's a show off. (opinion)
7. She stands in her own decision. (opinion)
8. She ignores most of people's bad comments about her and focuses on her job as president. (opinion)
9. Because Gloria grew up in a rich family, she does not know what is really 'poverty'. (opinion)
10. Base from the media, her performance rating as president this year is low . (Fact)

Anonymous said...

John Clarence Cailles Lo 2004-12459 January 20, 2005
Eng 10 MHR1 Ms. Mila Aguilar

1.) Estrada won the past elections because of his popularity as an actor. (statement of opinion)
2.) Estrada is such a “trapo” because he never put into work what he has promised to the people. (statement of preference)
3.) Estrada has undergone a knee surgery. (statement of fact)
4.) Estrada is the 13th president of the republic of the Philippines. (statement of fact)
5.) Estrada’s government is far much better than Gloria’s. (statement of preference)
6.) Estrada captured the heart of the mass. (statement of opinion)
7.) The late FPJ is a good friend of Joseph Estrada. (statement of fact)
8.) Joseph Estrada has many offsprings from different women. (statement of fact)
9.) Loi Estrada, who is Joseph Estrada’s wife, have won the elections as a senator. (statement of fact)
10.) Estrada cannot speak English fluently. (statement of opinion)

1.) Gloria Arroyo has the brain and the determination to administer our land. (statement of opinion)
2.) Gloria Arroyo has cheated in the 2004 presidential election. (statement of opinion)
3.) Gloria Arroyo is plastic particularly when mingling with the mass. (statement of preference)
4.) Gloria Arroyo hates Estrada. (statement of preference)
5.) Gloria Arroyo is the daughter of the former president Diosdado Macapagal. (statement of fact)
6.) Gloria Arroyo needs someone to teach her to allocate our country’s budget efficiently. (statement of preference)
7.) Gloria Arroyo has a petite physique. (statement of fact)
8.) Gloria Arroyo does not care for the welfare of her fellow citizens. (statement of opinion)
9.) Gloria Arroyo has never proven to the people that she is deserving of her position right now. (statement of opinion)
10.) Gloria Arroyo ruined Estrada’s life. (statement of opinion)

Anonymous said...

Louie JAy MAri G. Queroljico English 10 (MHR1)
2003-60041


Former President Estrada

1. The ousting of President Estrada was unconstitutional. – opinion
2. President Estrada is the 13th President of the Philippine Republic. – fact
3. The country wouldn’t have undergone fiscal crisis if President Estrada remained president. – opinion
4. Drug trade proliferated during President Estrada’s administration. – opinion
5. I like President Estrada because he is one with the masses. – preference
6. President Estrada underwent a knee surgery in Hong Kong. – fact
7. I do not believe that President Estrada is guilty of the crimes he is charged of. – opinion
8. The graft and corruption was worse in Fidel Ramos’ time than during Estrada’s administration. – preference
9. President Estrada should be punished for his crimes. – opinion
10. President Estrada was an actor before he became a politician. – fact


President Gloria Macapagal – Arroyo


1. The US – Arroyo regime brought the country to its downfall. – opinion
2. President Arroyo is an Economics graduate of the University of the Philippines, Diliman. – fact
3. President Arroyo is the daughter of the former President Diosdado Macapagal. – fact
4. President Arroyo and her cronies want to centralize corruption in Malacanang. – opinion
5. President Arroyo is a better president than Estrada because she does not employ the help of too many advisers unlike the latter. – preference
6. President Arroyo is addressed Her Excellency as a sign of respect. – convention
7. Militant groups say that President Arroyo runs the country the way Marcos did. – opinion
8. We would have been better off should Brother Eli Soriano have won rather than President Arroyo. – preference
9. The devil takes it human form in President Arroyo. – opinion
10. It is President Arroyo who makes mistakes and yet it is the people who suffer the consequences. - opinion

victor g. dalanao jr said...

Victor G. Dalanao Jr 04-60459 Ms. Mila D. Aguilar
English 10 MHR 1 January 31, 2005

Topic: Headhunting in the Cordillera region, particularly in Kalinga.
Thesis statement: Many tribes in the mountains of Cordillera practiced headhunting many years before the Spanish conquest. This paper intends to discover the factors that brought about headhunting in Cordillera.
1. Anima, Nid. The Headhunting Tribes Of The Philippines. Quezon City: Cultural
Foundation Of Asia, 1985.
Five of the notorious headhunting tribes in the Philippines are considered in this book. These tribes are, in order of importance, propensity, and aggressiveness, the Ilongots, Kalingas, Ifugaos, Igorots, and Tingguians. This Book, especially the chapter about the kalingas, helps a lot because it investigates and compares the headhunting tradition of the five tribes mentioned above. It also discusses the varied theories on how the tribes acquired their practice of headhunting.
2. Barton, R. F. The Half-way Sun: Life Among The Headhunters Of The Philippines. New
York: Brewen and Warren Inc., 1930.
Barton, a supervising teacher, narrates his travel from the lowlands of the Ilocos area up to the rugged trails of the Cordillera mountains. He describes the rough path they took out and the people he met. He mingled with a village in the northern part of Kalinga, and there he witnessed some traditional celebrations like a “head fest”. His account of his stay with the villagers is useful in my research because it gives me an idea on how the kalingas treated other people. The book also contains a lot of pictures of the warriors, women, ricefields, baskets, and houses.

3. Beyer, Henry O. Earliest People Of The Philippines. Quezon City: University of the
Philippines Library, 1950.
Beyer expounded on this article how the waves of different races migrated into the Philippines, how they established their settlements, and how they developed from a primitive hunting gathering lifestyle during the stone age into a permanent agricultural settlements of the metal age.
4. Beyer, Henry O. Origin Of Myths From The Philippine Mountain People. Manila:
Philippine Journal of Science, 1912.
The book is obviously full of articles on the mythology and religion of the mountain tribes of northern Luzon and the pagan tribes on Mindanao. Varied stories by the different tribes about the creation of life, the earth, mountains, rivers, seas, animals, and deities were discussed in the book. Beyer also describes the characteristics of the tribes mentioned above.
5. Beyer, Henry O. The Philippines Before Magellan. Quezon City: University of the
Philippines Library, 1921.
Beyer discusses on this book the connection and relationship of the Philippines with its neighbors before Magellan landed on Cebu. Beyer tackles the documents written by the visitors and traders from Java, Borneo, Moluccas, Celebbes, Sumatra, India, and China. Beyer analyzes these documents to understand how the relationship of the Philippines with its neighbors contributed to our rich culture even before Magellan arrived.
6. Billiet, Francisco and Francis Lambrecht. The Kalinga Ullalim II. Baguio City: Igorot
Culture Research Studies, 1974.
Franciscan priests Francisco Billiet and Francis Lambrecht coolected and documented many “Ullalim”, a traditional song by the kalingas in which they depict their legends, epics, and actual experiences. Some of these ullalims sung by warriors help a lot in my research since its lyrics are about successful headhunting expeditions. Moreover, The two priests write the stories behind the other “Ullalims” and relate their significance in the cultural advancement of the Kalingas.
7. Bondoc, Nestor H. A re-investigation Of The Espinosa Archaeological Sites: Cagayan
Valley and Kalinga Apayao. Manila: National Museum Anthropological Papers,
1979.
The book is a report of the procedures and results of the archaeological digging done at the Espinosa ranch by a team of Anthropologists commissioned by the National Museum. The book contains the description of the geography and climate of the site, the archaeological evidences excavated, and the conditions of the soil. With the new discoveries, the team analyzed and interpreted their findings to understand better how and when the peopling of the Philippines, Northern Luzon in particular, occurred. The analysis of the team plays an important role on my study because it gives me an idea when the first people in the Cagayan and kalinga Apayao area settled.
8. De Raedt, Jules. Kalinga Sacrifice. Baguio City: Cordillera Studies Center.
University of the Philippines Baguio, 1989.
Jules attended and recorded on tape a head hunting feast and twenty-four more complete performances of several kinds of rituals and animal sacrifices in Kalinga. Jules observed particularly the sacrificial ceremonies of the Buayas, a subtribe of the kalingas, and he recounts the complete steps from preparing the animal up to the final rites of the sacrifice. In this book, he gives his analysis of the rituals and tries to determine the significance of such rites to the buayas.
9. De Raedt, Jules. Similarities And Differences In Lifestyles In The Central Cordillera Of
Northern Luzon. Baguio City: Cordillera Studies Center University of the
Philippines, 1987.
Jules takes a closer look into the different ethnolinguistic tribes in the Cordilleras that speaks different dialects but somehow have striking similarities. Using available data, Jules aims to explore the unity and diversity of the customs among the cordillera tribes. He also considers the different theories that try to explain how the diversified customs of the tribes aforementioned developed.
10. Dozier, Edward P. The Kalinga Of Northern Luzon, Philippines. New York: Holt,
Rinehart, and Winston, Inc., 1967.
Dr. Edward Dozier have conducted a case study among the Kalingas for a year from 1959-1960 to study their social organization and social lifestyle. He writes about their rituals, beliefs, and their juistice system. Considerable information on headhunting and warfare of the kalingas is also included on the book which is useful on my study.
11. Keesing, Felix, and Marie Keesing. Taming Philippine Headhunters: A Study of
Government And Of Cultural Change in Northern Luzon. London: George Allen and
Unwin, ltd., 1934.
The writers, invited by the Philippine Council of The Institute of pacific Relations, spent four months with the non-christian people of Northern Luzon. They write on this book about the general description of the geography of the cordillera, and the physical characteristics, social organizations, and relationship of the Cordillera tribes. They also investigated the changes brought about by the Spaniards and Americans. The chapter about the changes brought about by the Americans and Spaniards is useful because it gives an explanation how the arrival of colonizers affected the lives of the natives.
12. Skibo, James M. Ants For Breakfast: Archaeological Adventures Among The Kalinga.
Salt Lake City: University Of Utah Press, 1999.
This book contains a narration of Jame’s travel and adventure to kalinga. Together with his group, James had mingled with the kalingas and observed personally their way of life. James also participated in traditional occasions like funerals, wedding, and peace pacts. James account of his visit is helpful since it discusses the existence of the kalingas and how they interact with other people.

13. Keesing, Felix M. The Ethno History Of Northern Luzon. California: Stanford UP,
1962.
Keesing studies and analyzes the interaction and relationship between the lowlanders and the mountain settlers in the Mountain Provinces to test the many theories proposed by other anthropologists on the migration and relationship of the varied tribes within northern Luzon. He gives a detailed description of the geography and population of the Ilocos, Pangasinan, and Cagayan areas and the highlands of the mountain provinces. He also explains how the Spaniards penetrated the northern Luzon communities and influenced the natives.
14. Scott, Henry William. History on the cordillera: Collected Writings on Mountain
Province History. Baguio City: Baguio Printing and Publishing Co.inc., 1975.
William Henry Scott focuses on the historical, anthropological, and bibliographical aspects of the origin and peopling of the Cordillera before the coming of the Spaniards. He also gives his insights how the Spaniards and Americans influenced the people of the mountain province. A chronology of events from 1565-1899 is also included on the book.

15. Sugguiyao, Miguel. The Kalinga Hill Tribe Of The Philippines. Quezon City: Office of
The Northern Cultural Minorities, 1990.
A native of Kalinga, Miguel Sugguiyao imparts on this book his observations of the way of life of his fellow Kalingas whom he has lived with for 72 years. He conveys a detailed write-up of the land and resources of Kalinga, the social structure and cultural heritage of its people, their socio-cultural institutions, values, beliefs, practices, and folklores.Because this book is written by a pure Kalinga, it is very useful tool in looking into the life of the kalingas as viewed by a kalinga compared to the views of the foreign anthropologists.

Anonymous said...

Louie Jay Mari G. Queroljico. 2003-60041. English 10-MHR1

Alvarado, Francisco. Paningog han Kalag. Manila: The San Juan Press, 1933.

“A collection of Sidai (Siday) divided into categories according to topic: places, beauty (environment and women), religion, songs, and others.”

Barrot, Margarito P. Ang Reduplikasyon sa Pilipino at sa Waray: Isang Pahambing na Pagsusuri. 1974

“Contains analysis and comparison of the use of nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs in Waray and Pilipino.”

Luangco, Gregorio C. Kandabao: Essays on Wary Language, Literature, and Culture., vol II. Tacloban City: DWU Publications, 1982.

“A discussion of orthography, prosody, meter, and other aspects of the language. Also includes guidelines on the use of words and letters of the dialect. Discusses different literary forms which are found to be mostly poetry. Also provides examples and insights of these literary pieces along with its evolution in history. Also provides biographies of various Waray writers.”

Luangco, Gregorio C. Waray Literature: An Anthology of Leyte-Samar Writings. Tacloban City: DWU Publications, c1982.

“This anthology includes various Leyte-Samar literary works as chosen by a “committee of experts” as representatives according to three periods: Folk and Pre-colonial period, Spanish-American Period (1521-1946), and Modern Period (1946-presents). The book also provides the English translations for every literary work that includes riddles, proverbs, folk songs, siday and others. It features the works of various Waray authors like Fr. Francisco Alzina, Jaime C. de Veyra, Eduardo Makabenta, and Norberto Romualdez, Sr. among others.”

Modina, Fulceda Flora M. Bahalina: Drinking Songs and Social Activities in Eastern Leyte. July 1990.

“The paper includes historical background of Palo and Tacloban City, Leyte. Gives an emphasis on bahalina [tuba] and its implications on the social structure of E. Leyte. Also included are drinking songs and links them to the culture of the region.”

Polo, Jaime Biron. Panulaan at Dulaang Leytenhon-Samarnon: Kalakip ang Orihinal na Leytenhon-Samarnon. Quezon City: ADMU Press, c1994.

“The book contains a colletion of different Waray literary pieces with their English translations. It also includes recent works of Waray authors and insights as taken from “Kandabao: Essays on Waray Language, Literature, and Culture”(Luangco,1982). The anthology includes the works of Iluminado Lucente, Vicente I. De Veyra, Leonor Almeria, and Agustin El O’mora among others.”
Sugbo, Victor N. Tinipigan: An Anthology of Waray Literature. Manila: NCCA, 1995.

“This book contains a collection of different Waray literary pieces from various authors of the region. The editor collected the works, with written record or not, from Samar and Leyte; providing their English translations. The anthology includes the works of Casiano Trinchera, Antonio M. Almadro, and Filomena Q. Singzon among others.”

Vilches, Maria Luz C. An Annotated Collection of Visayan Riddles from Leyte and Samar, Philippines. Tacloban City: DWU Publications, 1981.

“A collection of riddles divided into categories according to topic, like animals, persons, plants, things and the rest classified into miscellaneous.”

Anonymous said...

Jonathan F. Gino 2004-45838 M.D. Aguilar
English 10 MHR1 January 31, 2005


Topic: Is there A Philippine Public Administration (PPA)?
Thesis Statement: Public Administration as a field of study came in the Philippines through Bell Commission of 1952. It is said that PPA is a copycat from American Administrative System. This paper intends to distinguish PPA from any other PA of other countries. Also, to be able to know its root in the Philippine history and the factors that shaped this distinct PPA.

Kahulugan, Sakop at Kasaysayan ng Disiplina ng Administrasyong Pampubliko sa Pilipinas
This article by Prof. Victoria A. Bautista regarded Public Administration as an art and as well as a science. Science in a sense that it uses the traditional and new scientific system and views, it uses critical theory, it deals with development, nationalism and development administration that is present in social science (soft science).
Public Administration in the aspect of art. This means that the actors (administrators and the public) of PA that runs the system have their own way of administering and reacting on external stimulant base on their experience and creative minds.
The article also tackles the field of Public Administration in the Philippines. It is stated here that PPA is focusing on finance, organizations, governance and local government.
It also points out the strength of PPA, its characteristics, and history in the start of American Period.
***The article gives a brief description of Public Administration in the view of Filipino actors of government. In here we can also notice the great contribution of United States in establishing the discipline of Public Administration in our country. However, it is also noticeable that PPA has its own system of government where the public and the PPA are set. This also makes the PPA distinguished among other PA of other country.
Through the effort of the Daniel Bell Commission, on 1952 the Institute of Public Administration was established in the Philippines. This marked the start of the study of Public Administration in the Philippines. But even before 1952, the Philippines already has its government structure and administrators.

Reference:
Bautista, Victoria. Kahulugan, Sakop, At Kasaysayan ng Disiplina ng Administrasyong Pampubliko. Occasional Paper. Quezon City: CPA Publication Office, 1990.





Tadhana: The History of the Filipino People
The introduction of this book offers a brief history of the Filipino people during the Spanish Period in the viewpoint of the former President Ferdinand Marcos. The chapter described the status of the Filipino (called Indio during that time) in the hands of the Spanish invaders.
There were three social classes during that period – the principalia, the middle class and the masses who were below the middle class. The elite peninsulares (Spanish born in Spain) were the ones holding positions in the government. They administered the people, asked for taxes and ordered force labor. But above this high governing body were the highly respected friars who even took charge of the pueblo (town municipality) in the absence of Spanish officials.
This was the view of history in relation to administration by a man who spent 21 years holding the highest political position in the Philippines.
*** The article will help us find the trends of administration in the past that are still present in the recent administrative system. The influence of the church can still be traced in the present political setup. The local government that we have nowadays, the balangay (barangay), pueblo (town), and province, are brought about by both the influence of the Spanish and the culture which the people had even before the Spanish came. We can therefore claim that the root of Philippine Administrative system is anchored on our own history since time immemorial.
Reference:
Marcos, Ferdinand E. Tadhana: The History of the Filipino People. Quezon City: UP Diliman, 1979.





The Meaning of Public Administration

Private Administration (PA) is very hard to define. No one has set definition of PA in a single statement that is understandable to laymen and acceptable to the administrators and scholars. This book does not give the meaning of PA, however, it settles some issues concerning Private Administration. The first issue being tackled is the prejudice against PA. Due to the people’s ignorance, they relate Private Administration into corruption, scam, politicking and some irrelevant ideas, which is surely not PA.
No matter how blurred is the humans’ perception of Private Administration they still recognize PA as a different societal institution for some reasons. First, Public Administration is unavoidable. Second, Public Administration has a legal monopoly and coercive power. Third, Public Administration has a priority in carrying out activities and projects. Fourth, Public Administration provides public service. Fifth, Public Administration is responsible for political leadership. Public Administration judges performance in a very extraordinary way. And lastly, people expect more from Public Administration than from any other form of administration for everyone of us is a member of public society. He/she is a citizen.
***This article tends to give the first step to approach the subject matter – which is to define the discipline and identify the bases of its definition.
Also, the article gives the scope and limitation of the discipline of Public Administration and settles the wrong perception on PA. It also states some of the significances PA has in the society. Public Administration is inevitable in the society. With this, the article suggests to recognize Public Administration as a discipline although it faces identity crisis due to its overlapping study.


Reference:

Caiden, Gerald. The Dynamics of Public Administration: Guidelines to Current Transformation in Theory and Practice. Minsdale, Illinois: The Dryden Press, 1971.




Before The Conquest
These two chapters of Philippine history book give the rich culture of the early settlers in this archipelago including the system of government they had before the coming of the Spanish colonizers.
As early as 900A.D., the natives of this land (presently called Filipinos) have been trading with their neighboring countries. In the south are the Moslems of Indonesia, Bombay (India), and in the northern part are the Chinese who barters porcelain. Our ancestors have been commercially dealing with them. There have been small groups of community in our land. The balangay, composed of 30-100 families, was the biggest unit of society during that time. It was led by one datu, and the people in a balangay followed the rules set by the datu with the approval of the elders and with the blessing of the baylan or babaylan. To be a datu was to be brave, robust, and one had at least killed animals in the jungle for many times or at the very least had saved the community from harm.
Written and unwritten laws were already present in their society. The Code Of Kalantiaw had been made and was discovered by a Spanish priest in their journey to the Philippines. Women of the old times were receiving equal rights together with men. There they have had a unique judicial trial, and the policies made by the elders and datu were publicly announced through omalohokan or tagasigaw. Aside from the datu elders were also highly regarded in the community. They were part of policy-making and policy-giving body. Anyone who violates the laws given by the datu would be punished by a unique judicial system (trial by ordeal). At that time, there were already social classes – the maharlika (noble), timawa (freeman) and the alipin.
***These recorded facts help us to realize that our ancestors already have their concept of administering the public and governing a small number of people. They settled in one place as a community and enjoyed their small government under the leadership of a datu. Laws, written or unwritten, were made by a special body in the community and were followed by the people. This shows that our ancestors were practicing administration and rendering peace and service to the community even before any colonizers could.

Reference:
Agoncillo, Teodoro A. The History of the Filipino People. 8th edition. Manila Philippines: Publication Association of the Philippines (PAPI), 1990.








Civil Service of the Ancient World
Roman Empire and Ancient Egypt have long been civilized that even civil service was effectively done in their times.
Thus,
“The civil service of ancient Egypt and Roman empire had many common elements; indeed Rome borrowed some from Egypt. The hierarchical form of organization, full-time professional staffs, social stratification of service, clearly marked paths of promotion, relative security of tenure – these were both characteristics of both services. Both moreover had the same tragic endings, in becoming oppressive and burdensome to the people. Sharply in contrast stands the civil service of fifth century Athens. Scarcely any of the elements common to the Egyptians and Roman civil services are found in the Athenian. Instead there are amateur boards, selection by lot, rotation in office and an almost complete absence of professional staffs. As we have remarked above, Athenians valued responsiveness in government more highly than efficiency, and under their conditions had in truth no great ned for governmental efficiency. On the other hand, the Athenian system would have been wholly inadequate for the needs of Egypt and Rome”
***Rome Egypt and Greece had been having political glory six millennia ago. Although these three have fallen, they are the early civilizations that have greatly prospered in the context of governance, aside from China. In a long run, we could say that the Western Administrative System has been greatly influenced by them. The Philippines from the start hasn’t even known the existence of this civilization during those times. However, our ancestors already have their own way of administering their small society. This will help us realize that the Philippine Administrative System is something that is one of a kind that has just emerged originally from its early settlers.

Reference:
Fesler, James. American Public Administration: Patterns of the Past, Association of Public Administration. New York, 1982., Chapter 1




What Is Public Administration?
This chapter tends to give a concrete definition of Public Administration (PA) as a profession and as a field of study. The article was not able to produce a concrete definition of Public Administration, however it states five relevant definition of Public Administration. As the article clarifies, Public Administration is multidisciplinary. Defining Public Administration in a single statement is very difficult to do.” Public Administration overlaps other field of study.
In general, Public Administration:
1. is a cooperative group effort in a public setting;
2. covers all three branches of government – executive, legislative, and judicial – and their interrelationships;
3. has an important role in formulation of public policy and is thus a part of the political process;
4. is different in significant ways from private administration;
5. is closely associated with numerous private groups and individuals in providing services to the community.
Public Administration as a field of study has evolved and changed through times. From the early period of scientific management, pioneered by Frederick Taylor, it changed significantly until the period of World War II – in system, goals and structures.
***This chapter will enable us to distinguish Public Administration in the viewpoint of the world. In here, we can observe that the world’s perception of Public Administration is focused only on the American Administrative System and implies the evolution of PA in the United States setting. On the other hand, the article gives a clear definition of PA. It also gives the PA a concrete goal in a public setting. Aside from this, this article has opened the issue on the identity crisis of PA caused by its overlapping field of study.
Reference:
Nigro, Felix and Lloyd Nigro. Modern Public Administration, 7th edition., New York: Harper and Row Publishers, 1989.




The Relevance of New Public Administration (NewPA) in the Philippine PA
The relevance of New Public Administration may be assessed into two levels: conceptual (the underlying philosophy, content and purpose) and technical (the operationalization in terms of processes and techniques which are potentially, if not actually applicable in the Philippine context).
There are four major concepts that distinguish the NewPA (from conventional/classical PA).
First is the environment. The conventional PA, which focuses only on the scientific management, is not anymore applicable in the present environment. NewPA stands firm that a man, “as either organizational member or external client is a whole, complete, authentic human being” and “societal and individual goal take precedence over organizational goals.”
Second are the values. Conventional PA views good governance in the criteria of 3E’s – economy, effectiveness and efficiency. Aside from these 3E’s, NewPA added the concept of relevance, social equity, and client-orientedness.
Third is the structure. NewPA refers to a non-bureaucratic structure. Non-bureaucratic structure is more responsive than bureaucratic because it is temporary, problem oriented, flat in structure, simple and unobtrusively led while the bureaucratic setting is handicapped by rules, formalism and rituals.
And lastly, its process. NewPA shifts from traditional managerial process of organization and management to the distributive, integrative, boundary-exchange, and socio-emotional processes, which mean that processes are more concern of its people.
The author of the article, Nestor Pilar, said that, “conceptually, the content and purpose of NewPA is convergent with the goal of Philippine development. Technically, there appears a growing practice of tools and techniques that are supportive of NewPA.”
***This article states that New Public Administration, which came from the western countries, can be adopted in the Philippine setting of government. We can site criticism here because developing countries differ from developed countries in terms of its need and way of administration.
On the other outlook, this article provides differences of Conventional Public Administration to New Public Administration. In the long run, we can say that there are sets of factors that influence Public Administration of one country.

Reference:
Pilar, Nestor N. The Relevance of the New Public Administration In Philippine Public Administration. Philippine Journal Of Public Administration (PJPA), Vol. 26 Nos. 3-4 (July - October) UP-NCPAG., UP Diliman,1982




The Study of Public Administration
This article by Woodrow Wilson concentrates on the need to introduce Public Administration (PA).
The first focus of this article is the history of Public Administration and the American people that are involved in birthing this discipline in the United States. Here, administration is described not as an art but as a science. The science of PA they say is the latest fruit of the study of science of politics that came just 2200 years ago.
The next focus of this article is to define administration. Distinction between politics and administration was drawn and settled here. Politics is the study and formulation of policy while administration is the process of carrying out these policies to the people. It is the giving of public services to the people
*** Public Administration is truly a multi-faceted field that sometimes, its principles and studies overlap to other studies, especially political science. This article will help us set a demarcation line between PA and other discipline, and that our topic will have a single identified focus. The history of Administration should also be traced so that we will be able to limit and distinguish the principles and systems that are outside the domain of administration.

Reference:
Wilson, Woodrow. Classics of Public Administration, 4th ed., Harcourt Brace Publications, 1997.




Public and Private Management: Are They Fundamentally Alike In All Unimportant Respects?
Public Administration (PA) and Private Management (PM) differ in many important aspects and are similar in one single element.
The similarity of Public and Private Management lies on their elements known as POSDCORB – Planning, Organizing, Staffing, Directing, Coordinating, Reporting and Budgeting.
Aside from this, Public Administration and Private Management already are very much different in five major criteria.
The first criterion is their goal/mission. Public Administration’s goal is to lend public service while Private Management is very much profit-oriented. Second criterion is their relation to the public. Public Administration is subjected to public scrutiny, political pressure and public demand. Private administration is less exposed to public inspection. Third criterion is their accountability. Public Administration is accountable to the community or to the public. Every transaction and process needs to be transparent to the people. On the other hand, Private Management is accountable only to the owner of the firm corporation. The nature of the goods and services they lend also varies in accession. The goods and services Public Administration give are indivisible and are given equally among the public. In Private Management, the availment of goods and services depends upon the person’s capacity to pay the price tag. And lastly, the measurement of performance varies. In Public Administration, it is very difficult to measure the performance because the interpretation of each individual on a certain events varies. The only thing that is clear is that Public Administration exists to satisfy the needs of the people. In Private Management, profit is the bottom line.
***The article allows us to know the difference between Private Management and Public Administration. This will enable us to set our study on the field of PA alone and avoid those topics in the domain of Private Management.
Private Management and Public Administration are completely different fields but usually considered the same. This article settled down the problem and clearly put a demarcation line between Private Management and Public Administration.

Reference:
Allison, Graham T. The 1980s, Public Management Research Conference, Washington DC., OPM Publisher,1980.




Public Administration in the Philippines: History. Heritage and Hubris
This article gives the evolution of Philippine Public Administration from the Spanish Colonization up to the present administrative system of government. It points out that Philippine history has greatly influenced the present Public Administration (PA) in the Philippines. It shows records of the development of PA as a field of study in the Philippines.
During 1565 until 1898 of Spanish Colonization, Spaniards attempted to centralize bureaucracy in the land, a doubtful bureaucracy composed of elite principalia during that time.
After which (1900-1935), American occupation took place. The United States (US) established a professional bureaucracy during that time. The people still relied to the US for advice. However, local elites are already the administrators.
Commonwealth Government (1935-1946) gave a bureaucracy under a very strong executive. Bureaucracy during those days was more pronounced. During the Japanese Occupation (1942-1945) bureaucracy was undermined.
There is an Immediate Independence Period (1946-1972) where the US already surrendered the bureaucracy to the Filipino people. Here, there emerged problems in corruption and insurgency. The Philippines still relied in the US government to settle government problems. This was also the time when the Institute of Public Administration (presently National College of Public Administration – NCPAG) was established in University of the Philippines.
From 1972-1986, in the time of Martial Law, everything in the government was made more centralized than before. This was when Development Administration emerged. After which, the Post-Marcos Period promoted a more decentralized government and RA 7160 known as Local Government Code was enacted.

***This article offers facts that Philippine Public Administration (PPA) was very much influenced by the US. However, PPA changed through times and was also greatly influenced by the country’s other colonizers and the Filipino people that once hold high positions in the government. In view of this, we could say that Filipinos are born administrators, only that we are highly influenced by our three major colonizers, especially the Spanish that spent 333 years in this country.

Reference:
Reyes, Danilo R. The Philippine Social Science in the Life of the Nation. Vol.1., Quezon City: The Philippine Social Science Council. 1999.




Management: Filipino Style
The author said in his book that “Management: Filipino Style is an answer to a need for a Filipino management adapted to the Filipino values, mind, idiosyncrasy and character…this is to provide managers, supervisors, executives, professors, and students of management with a guide that covers the basic knowledge, techniques and approaches on the duties, functions and responsibilities of a supervisory manager in the Philippine environment…it covers special techniques in giving instructions, the art of discipline, handling gripes and avoiding grievances and how to supervise different kinds and categories of Filipino workers and employees.”
This book tackles the “Fundamentals of Supervising Employees,” “Special Techniques in Supervision,” and “Handling Special Problems With Subordinates.”
***This book gives us the idea that the management setting in the Philippines as well as the people, differ from any other management of other countries and other races respectively. In view of this, Philippine Public Administration is somehow different from any other PA in other countries because it is applied in a very dissimilar government setting and is applied to the people with peculiar characteristics, values, mind and perception to environment. However, there is a need to clarify the difference of Public Administration from management. Management may take place in a private setting and may be present for the good of the firm corporation profit, while Public Administration is for giving public service, mostly in the government sector. However, they are somehow similar for the same elements that they have – Planning, Organizing, Staffing, Directing, Coordinating, Reporting, and Directing (POSDCORB).

Reference:
Andres, Tomas Q.D. Management: Filipino Style. Makati Philippines: St. Paul Publication. 1989


Is There A Philippine Public Administration (PPA)?
Three institutions – education politics, and government, influence Philippine Public Administration.
Education in the Philippines is very poor. In terms of education on Philippine history, there is still no book published regarding the true history of the Filipino people. All the Philippine history books that we have now are just history of Spain and their colony here in the Philippines. Three major colonizers own 90% of the names listed in our history books. With this, it is very difficult to trace the main root or origin of PPA.
Ever since, politics in the Philippines has been very dirty. During the Spanish regime, we are deprived to take hold of our government. The elite principalia (Spanish and Spanish mestizo) were the ones in control and holders of the high positions. Even Filipino gobernadorcillos were under the friar’s control. The old and the new politics starting from the Spanish era were but one and the same.
Governing Filipinos emerged only during the American settlement. Civil service has only begun the latter days.
***The article hardly gives answers to its problem if there really is a Philippine PA. However, it gives us the idea that Filipino’s concept of Administration has rooted even before the American settlement. The statement that, governing Filipino only emerged during the American settlement, is somewhat false. It could be stated that Filipinos were deprived of governing its own society during the Spanish colonization but later resumed during the American settlement.
This article also offers reasons how PA reached its present state.
Reference:
Corpuz, Onofre D. Is There A Philippine Public Administration? Philippine Journal of Public Administration. QC Philippines: UP-NCPAG (Diliman), 1986.




Is There A Philippine Public Administration?
Public Administration (PA) if once used may have three references. It can be the government in action and to public bureaucracy, or Public Administration as a field of study, or the profession of managing the affairs in the government.
In the first reference, Philippine Public Administration (PPA) differs from the PA of other countries. The structural feature of government –national or local, the behavioral characteristics, the views on graft and corruption, and foundations are the things that made this PPA different in a little aspect.
However, when it comes to PA as a field of study, American PA is being taught among students of more than 60 universities and colleges in the Philippines. There is a great need for realizing the relevance of Public Administration in the Philippine context. American and Philippine Administrative System should differ because it is used on a different setting of government.
***The above article gives us the idea that there really is a genuine Philippine Public Administration as there is American Public Administration, French Public Administration, and Thai Public Administration. The government, environment and the people are just few factors that determine the Public Administration of one country. However, this article gives the idea that PPA started during the American settlement in the effort of Bell Commission. This gives us choice to further limit the scope of our study, focusing on Public Administration as a profession and as a bureaucratic government in action.
Reference:
De Guzman, Raul P. Introduction to Public Administration in the Philippines. Quezon City: UP-NCPAG, 2003.





The Concept of Governance
Governance is the act of exercising power and authority over a territory, system or organization. Governing is somewhat similar to managing. It is the “exercise of political, economic, and administrative authority to manage a nation’s affairs. Controlling on the other hand is far from the definition of governance. Controlling “assumes a law but managing is acting on a hypothesis.”
There are different actors in governance. The state is its principal actor. In here, all society are involved in managing public affairs. Thus, state facilitates and enables the participation of other elements in the society. Two other actors that participate in governance are the civil society and the market. Civil societies are the citizens engaged in public work outside the government. These three actors build linkages to each sector.
There are processes that give definition and value to governance. First is the quest for growth and development. Next is environmental movement. Another one is globalization, and lastly, consolidation of peace.
To be able to have good governance, one must settle criteria. In good governance, the public has the right to expect just laws, a fair and judicial system, politically accountable lawmaking and an effective and reform-minded bureaucracy. Good governance understands that to be able to reach a certain goal, everyone should do his or her job. Participation and responsiveness are two major criteria of good governance.
***The article is a reflection of the present setup of government in the Philippines. If it is true that the Philippines has a genuine Public Administration, has it helped the government in its unique way of administering. Governance is a very important context in the field of PA. Ergo, it is just right to include governance in the study of PA.
Reference:
Cariño, Ledevina V. Government to Governance: reflections on the 1999 World Conference on Governance. Eastern Regional Organization for Public Administration, 2000.




The Lineage of New Public Administration
New Public Administration was given birth in early 1960s as a response to wars (Vietnam War), racial discrimination and unsettled issue on intellectual basis of Public Administration.
The origin of Public Administration is its mother discipline, Political Science. However, this does not make Public Administration inferior to its mother discipline. In fact, in universities, Public Administration is more than Political Science in some factors. Even in government agency, Public Administration is ahead from Political Science. This is due primarily to the fact that Public Administration is very eclectic, and can be considered as Jack of all trade. However, Public Administration is on the same time less than Political Science on some factors. Since the discipline is very diverse, Public Administration has not set a major focus of career.
There are five models in Public Administration before the coming of New Public Administration. These are the Classic Bureaucratic Model, Neo-Bureaucratic Model, Institutional Model, Human Relation Model, and the Public Choice Model.
After these models, New Public Administration emerged.
***This article states the evolution that is happening in the discipline of Public Administration. With this, we could say that nothing in this ever-changing world is stagnant. There is a continuous process of change. Maybe, time will come when this New Public Administration will be replaced by another applicable model.

Reference:
Frederickson, George. Administration and Society. Vol. 8,.Columbia: College of Public and Community Service, University of Missouri, 1976.







BIBLIOGRAPHY
}Bautista, Victoria. Kahulugan, Sakop, At Kasaysayan ng Disiplina ng Administrasyong Pampubliko. Occasional Paper. Quezon City: CPA Publication Office, 1990.
}Marcos, Ferdinand E. Tadhana: The History of the Filipino People. Quezon City: UP Diliman, 1979.
}Caiden, Gerald. The Dynamics of Public Administration: Guidelines to Current Transformation in Theory and Practice. Minsdale, Illinois: The Dryden Press, 1971.
}Agoncillo, Teodoro A. The History of the Filipino People. 8th edition. Manila Philippines: Publication Association of the Philippines (PAPI), 1990.
}Fesler, James. American Public Administration: Patterns of the Past, Association of Public Administration. New York, 1982., Chapter 1
}Nigro, Felix and Lloyd Nigro. Modern Public Administration, 7th edition., New York: Harper and Row Publishers, 1989.
}Pilar, Nestor N. The Relevance of the New Public Administration In Philippine Public Administration. Philippine Journal Of Public Administration (PJPA), Vol. 26 Nos. 3-4 (July - October) UP-NCPAG., UP Diliman,1982.
}Wilson, Woodrow. Classics of Public Administration, 4th ed., Harcourt Brace Publications, 1997.
}Allison, Graham T. The 1980s, Public Management Research Conference, Washington DC., OPM Publisher,1980.
}Reyes, Danilo R. The Philippine Social Science in the Life of the Nation. Vol.1., Quezon City: The Philippine Social Science Council. 1999.
}Andres, Tomas Q.D. Management: Filipino Style. Makati Philippines: St. Paul Publication. 1989.
}Corpuz, Onofre D. Is There A Philippine Public Administration?. Philippine Journal of Public Administration. QC Philippines: UP-NCPAG (Diliman), 1986.
}De Guzman, Raul P. Introduction to Public Administration in the Philippines. Quezon City: UP-NCPAG, 2003.
}Cariño, Ledevina V. Government to Governance: reflections on the 1999 World Conference on Governance. Eastern Regional Organization for Public Administration, 2000.
}Frederickson, George. Administration and Society. Vol. 8,.Columbia: College of Public and Community Service, University of Missouri, 1976.

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Anonymous said...

Jonathan F. Gino 2004-45838 M.D. Aguilar
English 10 MHR1 January 31, 2005


Topic: Is there A Philippine Public Administration (PPA)?
Thesis Statement: Public Administration as a field of study came in the Philippines through Bell Commission of 1952. It is said that PPA is a copycat from American Administrative System. This paper intends to distinguish PPA from any other PA of other countries. Also, to be able to know its root in the Philippine history and the factors that shaped this distinct PPA.

Kahulugan, Sakop at Kasaysayan ng Disiplina ng Administrasyong Pampubliko sa Pilipinas
This article by Prof. Victoria A. Bautista regarded Public Administration as an art and as well as a science. Science in a sense that it uses the traditional and new scientific system and views, it uses critical theory, it deals with development, nationalism and development administration that is present in social science (soft science).
Public Administration in the aspect of art. This means that the actors (administrators and the public) of PA that runs the system have their own way of administering and reacting on external stimulant base on their experience and creative minds.
The article also tackles the field of Public Administration in the Philippines. It is stated here that PPA is focusing on finance, organizations, governance and local government.
It also points out the strength of PPA, its characteristics, and history in the start of American Period.
***The article gives a brief description of Public Administration in the view of Filipino actors of government. In here we can also notice the great contribution of United States in establishing the discipline of Public Administration in our country. However, it is also noticeable that PPA has its own system of government where the public and the PPA are set. This also makes the PPA distinguished among other PA of other country.
Through the effort of the Daniel Bell Commission, on 1952 the Institute of Public Administration was established in the Philippines. This marked the start of the study of Public Administration in the Philippines. But even before 1952, the Philippines already has its government structure and administrators.

Reference:
Bautista, Victoria. Kahulugan, Sakop, At Kasaysayan ng Disiplina ng Administrasyong Pampubliko. Occasional Paper. Quezon City: CPA Publication Office, 1990.





Tadhana: The History of the Filipino People
The introduction of this book offers a brief history of the Filipino people during the Spanish Period in the viewpoint of the former President Ferdinand Marcos. The chapter described the status of the Filipino (called Indio during that time) in the hands of the Spanish invaders.
There were three social classes during that period – the principalia, the middle class and the masses who were below the middle class. The elite peninsulares (Spanish born in Spain) were the ones holding positions in the government. They administered the people, asked for taxes and ordered force labor. But above this high governing body were the highly respected friars who even took charge of the pueblo (town municipality) in the absence of Spanish officials.
This was the view of history in relation to administration by a man who spent 21 years holding the highest political position in the Philippines.
*** The article will help us find the trends of administration in the past that are still present in the recent administrative system. The influence of the church can still be traced in the present political setup. The local government that we have nowadays, the balangay (barangay), pueblo (town), and province, are brought about by both the influence of the Spanish and the culture which the people had even before the Spanish came. We can therefore claim that the root of Philippine Administrative system is anchored on our own history since time immemorial.
Reference:
Marcos, Ferdinand E. Tadhana: The History of the Filipino People. Quezon City: UP Diliman, 1979.





The Meaning of Public Administration

Private Administration (PA) is very hard to define. No one has set definition of PA in a single statement that is understandable to laymen and acceptable to the administrators and scholars. This book does not give the meaning of PA, however, it settles some issues concerning Private Administration. The first issue being tackled is the prejudice against PA. Due to the people’s ignorance, they relate Private Administration into corruption, scam, politicking and some irrelevant ideas, which is surely not PA.
No matter how blurred is the humans’ perception of Private Administration they still recognize PA as a different societal institution for some reasons. First, Public Administration is unavoidable. Second, Public Administration has a legal monopoly and coercive power. Third, Public Administration has a priority in carrying out activities and projects. Fourth, Public Administration provides public service. Fifth, Public Administration is responsible for political leadership. Public Administration judges performance in a very extraordinary way. And lastly, people expect more from Public Administration than from any other form of administration for everyone of us is a member of public society. He/she is a citizen.
***This article tends to give the first step to approach the subject matter – which is to define the discipline and identify the bases of its definition.
Also, the article gives the scope and limitation of the discipline of Public Administration and settles the wrong perception on PA. It also states some of the significances PA has in the society. Public Administration is inevitable in the society. With this, the article suggests to recognize Public Administration as a discipline although it faces identity crisis due to its overlapping study.


Reference:

Caiden, Gerald. The Dynamics of Public Administration: Guidelines to Current Transformation in Theory and Practice. Minsdale, Illinois: The Dryden Press, 1971.




Before The Conquest
These two chapters of Philippine history book give the rich culture of the early settlers in this archipelago including the system of government they had before the coming of the Spanish colonizers.
As early as 900A.D., the natives of this land (presently called Filipinos) have been trading with their neighboring countries. In the south are the Moslems of Indonesia, Bombay (India), and in the northern part are the Chinese who barters porcelain. Our ancestors have been commercially dealing with them. There have been small groups of community in our land. The balangay, composed of 30-100 families, was the biggest unit of society during that time. It was led by one datu, and the people in a balangay followed the rules set by the datu with the approval of the elders and with the blessing of the baylan or babaylan. To be a datu was to be brave, robust, and one had at least killed animals in the jungle for many times or at the very least had saved the community from harm.
Written and unwritten laws were already present in their society. The Code Of Kalantiaw had been made and was discovered by a Spanish priest in their journey to the Philippines. Women of the old times were receiving equal rights together with men. There they have had a unique judicial trial, and the policies made by the elders and datu were publicly announced through omalohokan or tagasigaw. Aside from the datu elders were also highly regarded in the community. They were part of policy-making and policy-giving body. Anyone who violates the laws given by the datu would be punished by a unique judicial system (trial by ordeal). At that time, there were already social classes – the maharlika (noble), timawa (freeman) and the alipin.
***These recorded facts help us to realize that our ancestors already have their concept of administering the public and governing a small number of people. They settled in one place as a community and enjoyed their small government under the leadership of a datu. Laws, written or unwritten, were made by a special body in the community and were followed by the people. This shows that our ancestors were practicing administration and rendering peace and service to the community even before any colonizers could.

Reference:
Agoncillo, Teodoro A. The History of the Filipino People. 8th edition. Manila Philippines: Publication Association of the Philippines (PAPI), 1990.








Civil Service of the Ancient World
Roman Empire and Ancient Egypt have long been civilized that even civil service was effectively done in their times.
Thus,
“The civil service of ancient Egypt and Roman empire had many common elements; indeed Rome borrowed some from Egypt. The hierarchical form of organization, full-time professional staffs, social stratification of service, clearly marked paths of promotion, relative security of tenure – these were both characteristics of both services. Both moreover had the same tragic endings, in becoming oppressive and burdensome to the people. Sharply in contrast stands the civil service of fifth century Athens. Scarcely any of the elements common to the Egyptians and Roman civil services are found in the Athenian. Instead there are amateur boards, selection by lot, rotation in office and an almost complete absence of professional staffs. As we have remarked above, Athenians valued responsiveness in government more highly than efficiency, and under their conditions had in truth no great ned for governmental efficiency. On the other hand, the Athenian system would have been wholly inadequate for the needs of Egypt and Rome”
***Rome Egypt and Greece had been having political glory six millennia ago. Although these three have fallen, they are the early civilizations that have greatly prospered in the context of governance, aside from China. In a long run, we could say that the Western Administrative System has been greatly influenced by them. The Philippines from the start hasn’t even known the existence of this civilization during those times. However, our ancestors already have their own way of administering their small society. This will help us realize that the Philippine Administrative System is something that is one of a kind that has just emerged originally from its early settlers.

Reference:
Fesler, James. American Public Administration: Patterns of the Past, Association of Public Administration. New York, 1982., Chapter 1




What Is Public Administration?
This chapter tends to give a concrete definition of Public Administration (PA) as a profession and as a field of study. The article was not able to produce a concrete definition of Public Administration, however it states five relevant definition of Public Administration. As the article clarifies, Public Administration is multidisciplinary. Defining Public Administration in a single statement is very difficult to do.” Public Administration overlaps other field of study.
In general, Public Administration:
1. is a cooperative group effort in a public setting;
2. covers all three branches of government – executive, legislative, and judicial – and their interrelationships;
3. has an important role in formulation of public policy and is thus a part of the political process;
4. is different in significant ways from private administration;
5. is closely associated with numerous private groups and individuals in providing services to the community.
Public Administration as a field of study has evolved and changed through times. From the early period of scientific management, pioneered by Frederick Taylor, it changed significantly until the period of World War II – in system, goals and structures.
***This chapter will enable us to distinguish Public Administration in the viewpoint of the world. In here, we can observe that the world’s perception of Public Administration is focused only on the American Administrative System and implies the evolution of PA in the United States setting. On the other hand, the article gives a clear definition of PA. It also gives the PA a concrete goal in a public setting. Aside from this, this article has opened the issue on the identity crisis of PA caused by its overlapping field of study.
Reference:
Nigro, Felix and Lloyd Nigro. Modern Public Administration, 7th edition., New York: Harper and Row Publishers, 1989.




The Relevance of New Public Administration (NewPA) in the Philippine PA
The relevance of New Public Administration may be assessed into two levels: conceptual (the underlying philosophy, content and purpose) and technical (the operationalization in terms of processes and techniques which are potentially, if not actually applicable in the Philippine context).
There are four major concepts that distinguish the NewPA (from conventional/classical PA).
First is the environment. The conventional PA, which focuses only on the scientific management, is not anymore applicable in the present environment. NewPA stands firm that a man, “as either organizational member or external client is a whole, complete, authentic human being” and “societal and individual goal take precedence over organizational goals.”
Second are the values. Conventional PA views good governance in the criteria of 3E’s – economy, effectiveness and efficiency. Aside from these 3E’s, NewPA added the concept of relevance, social equity, and client-orientedness.
Third is the structure. NewPA refers to a non-bureaucratic structure. Non-bureaucratic structure is more responsive than bureaucratic because it is temporary, problem oriented, flat in structure, simple and unobtrusively led while the bureaucratic setting is handicapped by rules, formalism and rituals.
And lastly, its process. NewPA shifts from traditional managerial process of organization and management to the distributive, integrative, boundary-exchange, and socio-emotional processes, which mean that processes are more concern of its people.
The author of the article, Nestor Pilar, said that, “conceptually, the content and purpose of NewPA is convergent with the goal of Philippine development. Technically, there appears a growing practice of tools and techniques that are supportive of NewPA.”
***This article states that New Public Administration, which came from the western countries, can be adopted in the Philippine setting of government. We can site criticism here because developing countries differ from developed countries in terms of its need and way of administration.
On the other outlook, this article provides differences of Conventional Public Administration to New Public Administration. In the long run, we can say that there are sets of factors that influence Public Administration of one country.

Reference:
Pilar, Nestor N. The Relevance of the New Public Administration In Philippine Public Administration. Philippine Journal Of Public Administration (PJPA), Vol. 26 Nos. 3-4 (July - October) UP-NCPAG., UP Diliman,1982




The Study of Public Administration
This article by Woodrow Wilson concentrates on the need to introduce Public Administration (PA).
The first focus of this article is the history of Public Administration and the American people that are involved in birthing this discipline in the United States. Here, administration is described not as an art but as a science. The science of PA they say is the latest fruit of the study of science of politics that came just 2200 years ago.
The next focus of this article is to define administration. Distinction between politics and administration was drawn and settled here. Politics is the study and formulation of policy while administration is the process of carrying out these policies to the people. It is the giving of public services to the people
*** Public Administration is truly a multi-faceted field that sometimes, its principles and studies overlap to other studies, especially political science. This article will help us set a demarcation line between PA and other discipline, and that our topic will have a single identified focus. The history of Administration should also be traced so that we will be able to limit and distinguish the principles and systems that are outside the domain of administration.

Reference:
Wilson, Woodrow. Classics of Public Administration, 4th ed., Harcourt Brace Publications, 1997.




Public and Private Management: Are They Fundamentally Alike In All Unimportant Respects?
Public Administration (PA) and Private Management (PM) differ in many important aspects and are similar in one single element.
The similarity of Public and Private Management lies on their elements known as POSDCORB – Planning, Organizing, Staffing, Directing, Coordinating, Reporting and Budgeting.
Aside from this, Public Administration and Private Management already are very much different in five major criteria.
The first criterion is their goal/mission. Public Administration’s goal is to lend public service while Private Management is very much profit-oriented. Second criterion is their relation to the public. Public Administration is subjected to public scrutiny, political pressure and public demand. Private administration is less exposed to public inspection. Third criterion is their accountability. Public Administration is accountable to the community or to the public. Every transaction and process needs to be transparent to the people. On the other hand, Private Management is accountable only to the owner of the firm corporation. The nature of the goods and services they lend also varies in accession. The goods and services Public Administration give are indivisible and are given equally among the public. In Private Management, the availment of goods and services depends upon the person’s capacity to pay the price tag. And lastly, the measurement of performance varies. In Public Administration, it is very difficult to measure the performance because the interpretation of each individual on a certain events varies. The only thing that is clear is that Public Administration exists to satisfy the needs of the people. In Private Management, profit is the bottom line.
***The article allows us to know the difference between Private Management and Public Administration. This will enable us to set our study on the field of PA alone and avoid those topics in the domain of Private Management.
Private Management and Public Administration are completely different fields but usually considered the same. This article settled down the problem and clearly put a demarcation line between Private Management and Public Administration.

Reference:
Allison, Graham T. The 1980s, Public Management Research Conference, Washington DC., OPM Publisher,1980.




Public Administration in the Philippines: History. Heritage and Hubris
This article gives the evolution of Philippine Public Administration from the Spanish Colonization up to the present administrative system of government. It points out that Philippine history has greatly influenced the present Public Administration (PA) in the Philippines. It shows records of the development of PA as a field of study in the Philippines.
During 1565 until 1898 of Spanish Colonization, Spaniards attempted to centralize bureaucracy in the land, a doubtful bureaucracy composed of elite principalia during that time.
After which (1900-1935), American occupation took place. The United States (US) established a professional bureaucracy during that time. The people still relied to the US for advice. However, local elites are already the administrators.
Commonwealth Government (1935-1946) gave a bureaucracy under a very strong executive. Bureaucracy during those days was more pronounced. During the Japanese Occupation (1942-1945) bureaucracy was undermined.
There is an Immediate Independence Period (1946-1972) where the US already surrendered the bureaucracy to the Filipino people. Here, there emerged problems in corruption and insurgency. The Philippines still relied in the US government to settle government problems. This was also the time when the Institute of Public Administration (presently National College of Public Administration – NCPAG) was established in University of the Philippines.
From 1972-1986, in the time of Martial Law, everything in the government was made more centralized than before. This was when Development Administration emerged. After which, the Post-Marcos Period promoted a more decentralized government and RA 7160 known as Local Government Code was enacted.

***This article offers facts that Philippine Public Administration (PPA) was very much influenced by the US. However, PPA changed through times and was also greatly influenced by the country’s other colonizers and the Filipino people that once hold high positions in the government. In view of this, we could say that Filipinos are born administrators, only that we are highly influenced by our three major colonizers, especially the Spanish that spent 333 years in this country.

Reference:
Reyes, Danilo R. The Philippine Social Science in the Life of the Nation. Vol.1., Quezon City: The Philippine Social Science Council. 1999.




Management: Filipino Style
The author said in his book that “Management: Filipino Style is an answer to a need for a Filipino management adapted to the Filipino values, mind, idiosyncrasy and character…this is to provide managers, supervisors, executives, professors, and students of management with a guide that covers the basic knowledge, techniques and approaches on the duties, functions and responsibilities of a supervisory manager in the Philippine environment…it covers special techniques in giving instructions, the art of discipline, handling gripes and avoiding grievances and how to supervise different kinds and categories of Filipino workers and employees.”
This book tackles the “Fundamentals of Supervising Employees,” “Special Techniques in Supervision,” and “Handling Special Problems With Subordinates.”
***This book gives us the idea that the management setting in the Philippines as well as the people, differ from any other management of other countries and other races respectively. In view of this, Philippine Public Administration is somehow different from any other PA in other countries because it is applied in a very dissimilar government setting and is applied to the people with peculiar characteristics, values, mind and perception to environment. However, there is a need to clarify the difference of Public Administration from management. Management may take place in a private setting and may be present for the good of the firm corporation profit, while Public Administration is for giving public service, mostly in the government sector. However, they are somehow similar for the same elements that they have – Planning, Organizing, Staffing, Directing, Coordinating, Reporting, and Directing (POSDCORB).

Reference:
Andres, Tomas Q.D. Management: Filipino Style. Makati Philippines: St. Paul Publication. 1989


Is There A Philippine Public Administration (PPA)?
Three institutions – education politics, and government, influence Philippine Public Administration.
Education in the Philippines is very poor. In terms of education on Philippine history, there is still no book published regarding the true history of the Filipino people. All the Philippine history books that we have now are just history of Spain and their colony here in the Philippines. Three major colonizers own 90% of the names listed in our history books. With this, it is very difficult to trace the main root or origin of PPA.
Ever since, politics in the Philippines has been very dirty. During the Spanish regime, we are deprived to take hold of our government. The elite principalia (Spanish and Spanish mestizo) were the ones in control and holders of the high positions. Even Filipino gobernadorcillos were under the friar’s control. The old and the new politics starting from the Spanish era were but one and the same.
Governing Filipinos emerged only during the American settlement. Civil service has only begun the latter days.
***The article hardly gives answers to its problem if there really is a Philippine PA. However, it gives us the idea that Filipino’s concept of Administration has rooted even before the American settlement. The statement that, governing Filipino only emerged during the American settlement, is somewhat false. It could be stated that Filipinos were deprived of governing its own society during the Spanish colonization but later resumed during the American settlement.
This article also offers reasons how PA reached its present state.
Reference:
Corpuz, Onofre D. Is There A Philippine Public Administration? Philippine Journal of Public Administration. QC Philippines: UP-NCPAG (Diliman), 1986.




Is There A Philippine Public Administration?
Public Administration (PA) if once used may have three references. It can be the government in action and to public bureaucracy, or Public Administration as a field of study, or the profession of managing the affairs in the government.
In the first reference, Philippine Public Administration (PPA) differs from the PA of other countries. The structural feature of government –national or local, the behavioral characteristics, the views on graft and corruption, and foundations are the things that made this PPA different in a little aspect.
However, when it comes to PA as a field of study, American PA is being taught among students of more than 60 universities and colleges in the Philippines. There is a great need for realizing the relevance of Public Administration in the Philippine context. American and Philippine Administrative System should differ because it is used on a different setting of government.
***The above article gives us the idea that there really is a genuine Philippine Public Administration as there is American Public Administration, French Public Administration, and Thai Public Administration. The government, environment and the people are just few factors that determine the Public Administration of one country. However, this article gives the idea that PPA started during the American settlement in the effort of Bell Commission. This gives us choice to further limit the scope of our study, focusing on Public Administration as a profession and as a bureaucratic government in action.
Reference:
De Guzman, Raul P. Introduction to Public Administration in the Philippines. Quezon City: UP-NCPAG, 2003.





The Concept of Governance
Governance is the act of exercising power and authority over a territory, system or organization. Governing is somewhat similar to managing. It is the “exercise of political, economic, and administrative authority to manage a nation’s affairs. Controlling on the other hand is far from the definition of governance. Controlling “assumes a law but managing is acting on a hypothesis.”
There are different actors in governance. The state is its principal actor. In here, all society are involved in managing public affairs. Thus, state facilitates and enables the participation of other elements in the society. Two other actors that participate in governance are the civil society and the market. Civil societies are the citizens engaged in public work outside the government. These three actors build linkages to each sector.
There are processes that give definition and value to governance. First is the quest for growth and development. Next is environmental movement. Another one is globalization, and lastly, consolidation of peace.
To be able to have good governance, one must settle criteria. In good governance, the public has the right to expect just laws, a fair and judicial system, politically accountable lawmaking and an effective and reform-minded bureaucracy. Good governance understands that to be able to reach a certain goal, everyone should do his or her job. Participation and responsiveness are two major criteria of good governance.
***The article is a reflection of the present setup of government in the Philippines. If it is true that the Philippines has a genuine Public Administration, has it helped the government in its unique way of administering. Governance is a very important context in the field of PA. Ergo, it is just right to include governance in the study of PA.
Reference:
Cariño, Ledevina V. Government to Governance: reflections on the 1999 World Conference on Governance. Eastern Regional Organization for Public Administration, 2000.




The Lineage of New Public Administration
New Public Administration was given birth in early 1960s as a response to wars (Vietnam War), racial discrimination and unsettled issue on intellectual basis of Public Administration.
The origin of Public Administration is its mother discipline, Political Science. However, this does not make Public Administration inferior to its mother discipline. In fact, in universities, Public Administration is more than Political Science in some factors. Even in government agency, Public Administration is ahead from Political Science. This is due primarily to the fact that Public Administration is very eclectic, and can be considered as Jack of all trade. However, Public Administration is on the same time less than Political Science on some factors. Since the discipline is very diverse, Public Administration has not set a major focus of career.
There are five models in Public Administration before the coming of New Public Administration. These are the Classic Bureaucratic Model, Neo-Bureaucratic Model, Institutional Model, Human Relation Model, and the Public Choice Model.
After these models, New Public Administration emerged.
***This article states the evolution that is happening in the discipline of Public Administration. With this, we could say that nothing in this ever-changing world is stagnant. There is a continuous process of change. Maybe, time will come when this New Public Administration will be replaced by another applicable model.

Reference:
Frederickson, George. Administration and Society. Vol. 8,.Columbia: College of Public and Community Service, University of Missouri, 1976.







BIBLIOGRAPHY
}Bautista, Victoria. Kahulugan, Sakop, At Kasaysayan ng Disiplina ng Administrasyong Pampubliko. Occasional Paper. Quezon City: CPA Publication Office, 1990.
}Marcos, Ferdinand E. Tadhana: The History of the Filipino People. Quezon City: UP Diliman, 1979.
}Caiden, Gerald. The Dynamics of Public Administration: Guidelines to Current Transformation in Theory and Practice. Minsdale, Illinois: The Dryden Press, 1971.
}Agoncillo, Teodoro A. The History of the Filipino People. 8th edition. Manila Philippines: Publication Association of the Philippines (PAPI), 1990.
}Fesler, James. American Public Administration: Patterns of the Past, Association of Public Administration. New York, 1982., Chapter 1
}Nigro, Felix and Lloyd Nigro. Modern Public Administration, 7th edition., New York: Harper and Row Publishers, 1989.
}Pilar, Nestor N. The Relevance of the New Public Administration In Philippine Public Administration. Philippine Journal Of Public Administration (PJPA), Vol. 26 Nos. 3-4 (July - October) UP-NCPAG., UP Diliman,1982.
}Wilson, Woodrow. Classics of Public Administration, 4th ed., Harcourt Brace Publications, 1997.
}Allison, Graham T. The 1980s, Public Management Research Conference, Washington DC., OPM Publisher,1980.
}Reyes, Danilo R. The Philippine Social Science in the Life of the Nation. Vol.1., Quezon City: The Philippine Social Science Council. 1999.
}Andres, Tomas Q.D. Management: Filipino Style. Makati Philippines: St. Paul Publication. 1989.
}Corpuz, Onofre D. Is There A Philippine Public Administration?. Philippine Journal of Public Administration. QC Philippines: UP-NCPAG (Diliman), 1986.
}De Guzman, Raul P. Introduction to Public Administration in the Philippines. Quezon City: UP-NCPAG, 2003.
}Cariño, Ledevina V. Government to Governance: reflections on the 1999 World Conference on Governance. Eastern Regional Organization for Public Administration, 2000.
}Frederickson, George. Administration and Society. Vol. 8,.Columbia: College of Public and Community Service, University of Missouri, 1976.

amos :=> said...

Amos Kaiser K. Khan
Eng 10 - MHR1

Ma'am, since the annotated bibliography can't be displayed here in the right formatting, I put on an external link for it. Just click on it so that my assignment will display in plain html format. Thanks.

Click on one of the ff. links:

Link 01Link 02Email me at amos1019@gmail.com if you can't open the page.

amos :=> said...

Amos Kaiser K. Khan [04-02073]
Eng10 - MHR1

Assignment on Topic, Thesis Statement and Annotated Bibliography

Ma'am, since the annotated bibliography can't be displayed here in the right formatting, I put on an external link to it so that you can be able to view it in the way that it should be.

Click on one of the links:

Link 01Link 02if you can't view any of the two files, please feel free to email me at amos1019@gmail.com

Thanks.

Anonymous said...

John Clarence Cailles Lo 2004-12459 Ms.Mila D. Aguilar
English 10 MHR1 January 31, 2005


Topic: The impact of Laguna’s history to its present condition.

Thesis Statement: The progress of Laguna as a province at present is mainly influenced by the different significant events that it faced in the past. This paper intends to examine the various events that happened to Laguna in the past and to show its present situation.

Lancion, Conrado. Fast Facts about Philippine Provinces. Tahanan Books, 1995. 90-91.

This book gives basic information about the different provinces in the Philippines. And one of those provinces is Laguna in which the author discusses facts about it in merely two pages.

Agoncillo, Teodoro. Kasaysayan ng Bayang Pilipino. National Bookstore, 1975. 115.

After forty years of research, the author, who believes that Filipinos should observe their history on their own perspective and not with the foreign ones, finally arrived with the book about the Philippine history. One specific event being discussed here involving Laguna is the tragedy in Calamba.

Yambot, Efren. Philippine Almanac and Handbook of Facts. Philippine Almanac Printers, Inc., 1975. 80-88.
The book has written the Philippine history in a chronological order by the use of timelines. In that way, the reader can clearly see how the history flows and the identification of Laguna’s role in the past was easily done.

Boulien, Bryan. Children and Household Economic Activity in Laguna, Philippines. Institute of Economic Development and Research, University of the Philippines, 1976.
The purpose of this paper is to show the children’s role in the household economic activity in Laguna. As for the research paper concerned, it is a great help for determining how developed Laguna is.

Garilao, Ernesto. Laguna Rural Social Development Project. Honolulu, Hawaii: East West Technology and Development Institute, 1977. 1-8.
This paper is in fact a case study of Laguna’s development project. But it has also provided the economic profile of Laguna as of 1970 which is essential to the research paper concerned.

Climacosa, David. Economic History of Laguna, 1946-1948. Diss. University of the Philippines, 1990.
The dissertation explains the situation of Laguna after the World War 2, through its period of recovery and reconstruction in 1946-1965, its period of development in 1966-1981, the economic crisis period in 1981-1986 and the period of economic recovery in 1986-1988. It has also explained the major problems Laguna was dealing with in the 70’s and 80’s.

Sto. Tomas, Patricia. Communication Levels and Socio-Economic Development in Southern Luzon (Region IV). Diss. University of the Philippines, 1975.
This thesis focused on the social and economic development of the provinces in Southern Luzon which include Laguna. This will be helpful to the research paper concerned because it can be concluded here how progressive Laguna was through the use of socio-economic indicators.

Averion, Estelita. Isang Panimulang Pag-aaral sa Kasaysayan at mga Alamat ng Iba’t Ibang Bayan sa Lalawigan ng Laguna. Diss. University of the Philippines, 1974.
This dissertation narrates firstly the history of Laguna followed by the fascinating histories of the cities and towns in Laguna.

Zaide, Gregorio. Philippine History and Civilization. Philippine Associated Publication, 1939. 139-256.
Much of the information written in this book that concerns Laguna is about the different revolts in the past led by Chinese and Filipino and some happened during British invasion.

Gleeck, Lewis Jr. Laguna in American Times: Coconuts and Revolucionarios. R.P. Garcia Publishing Co., Inc., 1981.
The author describes in this book the situation of Laguna during the American period, and it is mentioned here that the Americans were not the one accountable for the development of Laguna.

Alicante, M.M., et. al. Soil Survey of Laguna Province, Philippines. Manila Bureau of Printing, 1948. 54-57.
This book though doesn’t have to do with Laguna’s history; it just plainly talks about the impressive features of Laguna and its land’s abundance.

“Laguna History.” http://www.tourism.gov.ph/explore_phil/place_details.asp?content= history&province=18.
The article discusses the history of Laguna, from the Spanish conquerors and the Franciscan friars who brought Christianity to the Philippines to the revolt against the Spaniards and its progression to achieving peace.

“Laguna.” http://www.csi.com.ph/nodes/laguna/about.htm.
This article tackles the brief province, city and municipal profile of Laguna, its climate, geography, population, language or dialect, and political subdivision.

Odal, Grace. “Lowland Cultural Group of the Tagalogs.” http://66.102.7.104/search?q= cache:YL9LTKz62fAJ:www.ncca.gov.ph/culture%26arts/cularts/ccta/kapatagan/kapatag-tagalog.htm+laguna+rizal+history&hl=tl.
The article simply discusses the Tagalog cultural group of the Philippines in which Laguna is included.

"Laguna at its Best." msc.net.ph/laguna/history.html.
Another version of Laguna's history and a discussion of it in a different perspective.

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